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Grade 9 Ontario Canada

What are minerals? Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. There are more than 2000 types of minerals.
What are uses for the mineral Diamond? -cutting hard materials by using it in blades or drill bits -jewellery
What are uses for the mineral Flourite? Toothpaste, mouthwash, drinking
What are uses for the mineral Talc? baby powder/foot powder
What are uses for the mineral Gypson? Drywall
What makes a mineral a mineral? A) Solid under normal conditions B) Naturally occurring C) Inorganic D) Fixed chemical formula E) Atoms that arranged in order of crystalline structure
The physical properties of a mineral result from what? The internal arrangement of atoms
The most abundant elements in the Earth's crust by far are? A) Oxygen B) Silicon which is 75% of the earths crust
What are silicates? Common minerals formed that contain oxygen and silicon
What are examples of silicates? A) Quartz -only silicone & oxygen atoms used in decoration, electronics, fibre optics B) Feldspar - mostly silicon & oxygen used in paint, ceramics, shine C) Mica - mostly silicon & oxygen with weak structure, peels in layers, translucent, fireproof
What are the four layers of Earth? A) Crust B) Mantle C) Astestisphere D) Inner and outer core
Describe the Earth's crust? Thinnest layer, solid, igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
Describe the Earths mantle? Thickest layer, layer of silicate rock, solid
Describe the Earth's Astetosphere? Highly viscous, rocks of plastic (solid), weakest layer
Describe the Earth's Outer and Inner Core Outer core is a fluid layer made out of iron and nickle Inner core is a solid ball made mostly of iron
What are the 13 major plates that make up the Earth's crust? 1.Pacific 2. North American 3. Eurasian 4. Local 5. Caribbean 6. Agean 7. Nazca 8. South American 9. African 10. Indo-Australian 11. Antarctic plate 12. Cocos 13. Juan de Fuca
What are the five themes of Geography? Give them examples of each? 1. Location - Where on a map 2. Place - What is it like there 3. Human environment - How do people adapt to changes / depend on environment 4. Region - What areas have common characteristics 5. Movement - How do people, goods, and ideas get around
Time Zone Fact 1: The earth rotates how many times a day? once
Time Zone Fact 2: What is the circumference of the earth? 360 degrees
Time Zone Fact 3: What are the six Canadian time zone? 1. Newfoundland 2. Atlantic 3. Eastern 4. Central 5. Mountain 6. Pacific
Time Zone Fact 4: How many degrees do time zones have from East to West. 15 degrees of longitude from East to West.
Time Zone Fact 5: How many time zones does the world have? 24
Time Zone Fact 6: Standard time starts at what degree of longitude? 0 degrees of longitude, running through Greenwich England. This is called the Greenwich meridian or the prime meridian.
Time Zone Fact 7: Standard time was developed by what Canadian? Sir Sanford Fleming
Time Zone Fact 8: Most Canadian provinces have a one hour time difference except for which province? Newfoundland standard time
Location in relation to the five themes of Geography asks us: Where is it on a map? Where is it?
Place in relation to the five themes of Geography asks us: What is it like there? Are there land forms like mountains or bodies of water?
Human Environment in relation to the five themes of Geography asks us: How do people adapt, change or depend on the environment? -natural events -man made structures such as bridges or reservoirs -the clothing and housing that people live in are all examples of human environment and how we adapt, either it or us.
Region in relation to the five themes of Geography asks us: What areas have common characteristics? -Same kind of forest (tree types) as another place located elsewhere -Similar governmental policies as another place located elsewhere
Movement in relation to the five themes of Geography asks us: How do people, goods and idea's get around? -transportation such as city bus, freight train, or boats in port -internet access, email and social media
What are the major lines of latitude and longitude? A) Equator B) Antarctic circle C)Tropic of Cancer D) Prime Meridian E)Tropic of Capricorn F)Arctic circle
What is the province with the largest area? Quebec
What is the province with the smallest population? Prince Edward Island
What is the province closest to Asia? British Columbia
What is the province located furthest East ? Newfoundland
What is another name for lines of latitude? meridians
What is another name for lines of longitude? parallels
The line of longitude located at 0 degrees is called what? Prime Meridian
All lines of longitude cross where? The poles
The super continent of Pangea broke up and became what two land masses? Laurasia and Gondwanaland
At a transform fault, plates are doing what? Sliding past each other
Why did the Hawaiian Islands form? Because of a hot spot under the pacific plate
What are the three typical soil profiles? 1. Horizon A - takes long time to form, darker, organically rich 2. Horizon B - Mix of organic and parent material, light 3. Horizon C - Minerals to form soil (bed rock)
When there is thin top soil what can you expect? decreased nutrients and less vegetation You can still grow things but you will need a fertilizer
How do nutrients enter soil? Rain water percolates through the top soil and dissolves the nutrients with it, carrying them downward.
humus is rich in minerals which helps things grow. What is the colour of soil rich in humus? A) Brown B) Black C) Grey B) Black
Vegetation rich in humus would be... A) Grassland B) Boreal Taiga C) Tundra A)Grassland
What is the Western Cordillera? Mountain chain
What is mixed forest? coniferous and deciduous trees
Define deciduous forest - Biome - Loses and grows leaves seasonally
What is the land form region shaped like a saucer? Canadian Shield
Land form region containing the rocky mountains Western Cordillera
What is natural vegetation? Plants that grow without human interference
What are the 7 natural vegetation regions? 1) Tundra 2) Boreal Taiga 3) Mixed forest 4) Deciduous forest 5) Grasslands 6) Cordilleran 7) West Coast Forests
What is sod mat? Deep intertwining of root systems which absorbs moisture and keeps soil in place.
What do plants do in the tundra? Keep themselves small in order to protect themselves from the harsh climate - very little humus.
In the tundra is the growing season short or long? Why? short, because of the permafrost.
What is permafrost? Covers most of the tundra, layer of frost/ice beneath soil
Describe the boreal and taiga forest -largest vegetation region -south of tundra, seperated by treeline -mostly coniferous trees -Grey soil, very little humus -cold climate, short growing season
Created by: Tessamae
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