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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian C. Psych. "Problem Solving & Creativity" 2021

What does the term "problem representation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the way you translate the elements of a problem into a different format".
What does the term "matrix" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a grid consisting of rows & columns that shows all possible combinations of items".
What is a "hierarchical tree diagram"? These are "tree - like" diagrams with structures that show various possible options in a problem".
When are "hierarchical tree diagrams" particularly useful? These are particularly useful in "showing the relationship between categorized items".
What is one (1) advantage to using diagrams in problem solving? One (1) advantage to this is that "they can represent complicated information in a clear, concrete form".
What does the "situated cognition approach" to problem solving state? This states that "we often use helpful information in our immediate environment to create spatial representations.
What does the "embodied cognition approach" to problem solving state? This states that "we often use our own body and our own motor actions in order to express our abstract thoughts and knowledge".
What is the first step in problem solving? The first step involved in this process is creating an accurate mental representation of the problem.
What is an "algorithm"? This is "a method that will always produce a solution to the problem, although the process can sometimes be inefficient".
What does the term "heuristic" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a general rule that is usually correct".
How would you use a "heuristic" strategy to solve a problem? You ignore some alternatives and explore only those alternatives that seem especially likely to produce a solution.
How would you use an "analogy approach" to solve a problem? You would "employ a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help you solve a new problem".
What does the term "problem isomorphs" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a set of problems that have the same underlying structures and solutions, but different specific details".
What does the term "structural features" mean/ refer to where problem solving is concerned? This term refers to "the underlying core that (a person) must understand in order to solve the problem correctly".
How do you use the "Means-Ends Heuristic" when solving a problem? 1.) Divide the problem into a number of subproblems; 2.) Try to reduce the difference between the initial state & the goal state for each of the subproblems.
What does research on the "Means-Ends Heuristic" state? Research on this states that people do organize problems in terms of subproblems.
What is the "General Problem Solver"? This is a computer program whose basic strategy is conducting a "Means-Ends" analysis. It's goal is to mimic the processes that normal humans use when they tackle these problems.
How do you use the "Hill-Climbing Heuristic"? When you use this, you consistently choose the alternative that seems to lead most directly toward your goal when you reach a choice point.
What does the term "fixed mindset" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a person who believes that they possess a certain amount of intelligence and other skills, and no amount of effort can help them perform better".
What does the term "growth mindset" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a person who believes that they can cultivate their intelligence and other skills. They challenge themselves to perform better, regardless of the task they are trying to improve".
What does the term "functional fixedness" mean/ refer to? This term means that we tend to "assign stable (or "fixed") functions to an object. Because of this, we fail to think about the features of the object that might be useful in helping us solve the problem".
What are "insight problems"? These are problems "that initially seem impossible to solve, but then an alternative approach suddenly bursts into your consciousness".
How do you solve "noninsight problems"? You solve these problems " . . .gradually, by using your memory, reasoning skills, & a routine set of strategies".
According to theorists, what does "creativity" require? This requires "novel & useful solutions".
What does the term "divergent production" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the number of different responses made to a test item (that measures creativity)".
What do "convergent production" creativity tests ask test takers to do? These tests ask the test taker to supply a single, best response, and the researchers measure the quality of the response.
What does the term "intrinsic motivation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the motivation to work on tasks for their own sake, because you find them interesting, exciting, or personally challenging".
What does the term "extrinsic motivation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the motivation to work on a task - not because you find it enjoyable - but in order to earn a promised reward or to win a competition."
What does the term "self - efficacy" mean/ refer to? This refers to "the belief that you have the ability to organize and carry out a specific task".
What does the term "perseverance" mean/ refer to? This refers to "the ability to keep working on a task, even when you encounter obstacles".
Briefly explain how you use the SCAMPER creativity technique. You use this by asking questions about an existing product and using the 7 prompts that go with each letter of the word to help you come up with creative ideas for developing new products.
What is one (1) advantage to using Hurson's "Productive Thinking Model" of problem solving? One advantage of this is that "it encourages you to use creative and critical thinking skills at each stage of the problem solving process".
What are the six (6) steps involved in using Hurson's "Productive Thinking Model" of problem solving? 1.) Ask "What is going on?"; 2.) Ask "What is success?"; 3.) Ask "What is the question?"; 4.) Generate answers; 5.) Forge the solution; 6.) Align resources.
Complete the following sentence: "You reach the _____________ when you solve a problem." "Goal State".
What does the "initial state" refer to where problem solving is concerned? This refers to "the situation at the beginning of the problem".
What are the four (4) aspects of problem solving? 1.) Understanding the problem; 2.) Problem - solving strategies; 3.) Factors that influence problem solving; 4.) Creativity.
What are the four (4) main methods of representing a problem? 1.) Symbols; 2.) Diagrams; 3.) Matrices; 4.) Visual Images.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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