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Chemistry Chapter 6

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
chemical bond the attractive forces that holds atoms or ions together
ionic bonding a force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into an ion; metal and nonmetal
covalent bonding a bond formed when atoms share one of more pairs of electrons; metal and metal
nonpolar covalent bond a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms
polar describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
polar covalent bond a covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom
molecule the smallest particle of a substance that has all of the chemical properties of that substance; is made up of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
molecular comound a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
chemical formula a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance.
molecular formula a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in molecule, but not the arrangement of atoms
bond energy the energy required to the break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical comound
electron-dot notation and electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
lewis structure a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds
structural formula a formula that indicates the location of the atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a molecule and that indicates the number and location of chemical bonds
single bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
multiple bond a bond in which the atoms share more than one pair of electrons, such as a double bond or a triple bond
resonance the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
ionic compound a compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction
formula unit the collection of atoms corresponding to an ionic compound's formula such that the molar mass of the compound is the same as the mass of 1 mol of the formula units
lattice energy the energy associated with constructing crystal lattice relative to the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances
polyatomic ion and ion made of two or more atoms
metallic bonding a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
malleability the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
ductility the ability of a substance to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire
VSEPR theory predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
hybridization the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of the same atom to produce new orbitals; represents the mixing of higher and lower energy orbitals to form orbitals of intermediate energy
hybrid orbitals orbitals that have the properties to explain the geometry of chemical bonds between atoms
dipole a pair of equal and oppositely charged or magnetized poles separated by a distance
hydrogen bonding the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
london dispersion forces in the intermolecular attraction from the uneven distribution of the electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles
AB2 linear
AB3 triangular planar
AB4 tetrahedral
AB2E/AB2E2 bent
AB3E triagonal pyramidal
Created by: sballentine