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KINE 1035 Review

Human Motor Development

activities of daily living (ADLs) Regular self-care activities that are fundamental for functioning (e.g., eating, getting out of a chair or bed, dressing, bathing).
age of menarche The age at which the menstruation begins, useful for estimating maturation in girls occurring close to the completion of female peak growth height.
ageism Negative stereotypes concerning older adults that can lead to discrimination and the exclusion of older adults from social interaction.
age-related macular degeneration (AMD) A loss in visual acuity that occurs in dry form resulting from the breakdown of the light-sensitive cells in the macula, as well as in wet form in which new blood vessels behind the retina leak and cause deterioration of the macula.
alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) Birth defects resulting from the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND) Neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
amniocentesis A procedure that employs a thin needle to remove amniotic fluid drawn from around the fetus to determine the presence of some disorders.
Androgens Sex hormones.
appositional bone formation A postnatal increase in the diameter of a long bone as a result of bone deposition rate being greater than the rate of reabsorption.
associative play A level of play behavior in which two or more children exhibit an awareness of each other and begin to exchange toys with no group goal.
asymmetric tonic neck reflex A reflex elicited when a baby is prone or supine and the head is turned to one side or the other, causing the limbs on the face side to extend while the limbs on the opposite side flex.
auditory perception The process whereby auditory stimuli are received, selected, organized, and interpreted.
Babinski reflex A reflex in which, to elicit a response, the bottom or lateral portion of the foot is stroked, resulting in a downward turning of the great toe and sometimes all the toes of the stimulated foot.
balance A state of equilibrium in which the desired body posture is maintained. Sometimes referred to as postural control.
biacromial/bicristal ratio A measure of proportional growth relating biacromial breadth, a measure of shoulder width & distance between right & left acromial processes, with bicristal breadth, a measure of hip width & distance between right & left iliocristales (hipbones).
binocular vision Coordinated eye movement in which both eyes move in unison so that each focuses the desired image on its macula.
Blindness A loss in vision ranging from total loss of vision to an 80 percent loss of vision.
body composition The percentages of fat, bone, water, and muscle tissue in an individual.
body mass index (BMI) A valuable measurement of body weight and height associated with the prediction of future health risks that is found by the measurement of body weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.
body scaling Selecting equipment that is sized appropriately for the performer’s body dimensions.
bone remodeling Changes in bone shape, size, and density that are a response to forces acting on bone.
cataracts A clouding of the eye’s lens that results in the loss of visual acuity.
catching The action of bringing an airborne object under control by using the hands and arms.
catch-up growth The human power “to stabilize and return” to a predetermined behavior or growth pattern “after being pushed off trajectory” (Tanner, 1978, p. 154).
cephalocaudal The development or growth of the human being from the top of the body, the head, downward toward the “tail”, or the feet. Literally meaning “from the head to the tail.”
chronological age The length of time from birth that is generally used to denote a person’s level of maturity but fails to address individual variation in rate of maturation.
coincidence-anticipation The process behind the coordinated interception of a moving object.
compensation period A period of motor development involving a nullifying of or adaptation to the effects of some type of negative influence.
concussion Mild or traumatic brain injury.
cones A photoreceptor dominant in the retina’s macula that makes color vision and acuity possible.
constraints Factors that limit, contain, or help shape the development of movement.
validity A form of validity where the content of the attribute being measured is adequately assessed by the measurement process.
contextual constraint A perspective recognizing that factors other than age have effects on intellectual change across time, i.e., situational factors.
contralateral A creeping pattern in which the movements of the limbs oppose each other—as the right arm and left leg go forward, the left arm and right leg go backwards.
crawling reflex A reflex in which, to elicit a response, the baby is placed prone on the floor or table, and the soles of the feet are stroked alternately, causing the legs and arms to move in an action similar to crawling.
crawling An early stage in locomotion in which the infant tries to travel by thrusting the arms forward and flexing while the legs are flexed and re-extended for propulsion.
creeping An early stage of locomotion in which the infant elevates the body from the supporting surface with the legs flexed into a position beneath the body.
criterion-referenced (CR) assessment instruments Instruments that evaluate the “quality” of a person’s performance by using a predictable sequence of milestones of human development, allowing the observer to determine where a person’s performance lies on this continuum.
critical periods Times in which specific conditions are required for optimal, or even typical, development
cutaneous system The system that provides tactile sensitivity receiving information from the skin consisting of at least four senses: pressure, coldness, warmth, and pain.
deprivation A lack of early stimulation (e.g., emotional attachment, social interaction, nourishment, intellectual stimulation).
development Changes in the human being across time that are a function of genetics as well as environmental adaptations throughout life.
developmental age Age indicated by landmark parameters tied to physiological events that occur in all people.
developmentally appropriate Using knowledge and awareness of developmental change to tailor programs to meet the needs of children, rather than expecting children to adjust to the demands of a specific program.
diabetic retinopathy A complication of diabetes that can cause the vessels of the retina to hemorrhage, which in turn discolors the eye’s interior gel and can cause the retina to detach the retina.
diaphysis The shaft or center of a long bone.
differentiation The progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well-controlled, intentional movement as segments of the body develop a unique duty or specialization in a movement.
distance curve A graphic used to plot an individual’s accumulated growth over time.
disuse atrophy The wasting away of muscle mass that is the direct result of physical inactivity, occurring when an individual simply does not use the muscles sufficiently.
double support phase A phase in walking in which both feet are in contact with the supporting surface.
dribbling A movement in which a person bounces a ball by using the hand to push the ball repeatedly downward.
dynamic balance The ability to maintain desired body position when the body is in motion.
dynamic systems theory A theory positing that developmental systems are complex, coordinated and self-organizing with reduced emphasis placed on more traditional elements (such as the performer’s age or genetics) and increased value placed on environmental interaction.
dynamic tripod The mature grasp of an implement in which the thumb, middle finger, and index finger function as a tripod for the writing implement, enabling the child to perform small, highly coordinated movements of the implement.
dynamic visual acuity The ability to see detail in moving objects.
endochondral bone formation A process in the postnatal development of the bone in which the bones lengthen at the epiphyseal cartilage discs or secondary ossification centers.
epiphyseal plate A cartilage plate found at the end of long bones that ossifies as a sign of maturity.
exercise–aging cycle A proposed cycle during adulthood depicting gradual disengagement from physical activities, causing declines in motor ability & physical declines—including percent fat increases, muscular atrophy, & energy level reductions.
exergaming A format of interactive video gaming that requires physical participation.
exploratory play A level of play behavior in which children often examine and explore the detailed characteristics of objects, such as toys, in their environment.
extrinsic causes Factors surrounding a fall that are linked to the environmental situation (e.g., darkness, environmental obstacles, medication, alcohol or drug use).
eye dominance The tendency of one eye to lead the other in tasks involving visual tracking and visual fixation.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) A disorder caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy that results in altered facial features, mental retardation, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and retarded physical growth in stature, weight, and head circumference.
fine motor Movements predominantly produced by the smaller muscles or muscle groups of the body.
flexibility The range of movement within a person’s joints.
flight phase A phase in running in which the body has been thrust into the air by the vigorous extension of the support leg.
frailty A complex health state of increased vulnerability to stressors due to impairments in multiple systems.
fundamental patterns A developmental period beginning in infancy in which a young child establishes an array of movements that enable a quantity and quality of movement skill in later life.
gait cycle The distance covered by two heel strikes of the same foot, consisting of the swing phase and the support phase.
gallop A motor pattern consisting of a forward step followed by a leap onto the trailing foot.
gender role identity The degree to which an individual identifies himself or herself with a particular gender.
glaucoma An eye disease resulting from fluid being plugged in the eye’s anterior chamber, causing loss in peripheral vision that can rapidly progress to affect central visual acuity and damage the optic nerve.
self-esteem The overall value that a person places on himself or herself as a person.
golgi tendon organs Small stretch receptors located near the junction of the muscle and the muscle’s tendon.
gross movement Movement primarily controlled by the large muscles or muscle groups.
growth The quantitative and structural (physical) increases that occur with age.
righting reflexes When the body is turned while a baby is supine/prone, the head follows, returning to front-facing position relative to shoulders. When the head is turned to one side, the body follows & turns to align shoulders in a front facing position with the head.
head circumference A measurement used to indicate the relationship of head length to overall body length in body proportion measures.
homolateral A creeping pattern characterized by the limbs on the same side simultaneously moving forward or backward in opposition to the arms and legs on the other side of the body.
hopping A form of jumping in which the propelling force is generated in one leg and the landing is accomplished on the same leg.
horizontal jump A jump in which the body is propelled both upward and forward.
human motor development Changes that occur in the ability to move and movement in general as people proceed through their lifespan, as well as a field of study examining changes in human movement across the lifespan and the processes that affect those changes.
hydrostatic weighing (HW) The “gold standard” for determining a person’s body composition based on the displacement of water.
hypertrophy An increase in the size of muscle.
information-processing theory A theory that suggests the human mind functions much like a computer.
interpersonal play Play with one or more others.
interrater reliability Also known as objectivity, the degree of accuracy to which a test is scored.
isometric force Force exerted against an immovable object with no or very little change in the length of the exercised muscle.
jumping A fundamental movement in which the body is projected into the air by force generated in one or both legs and the body lands on one or both feet.
kicking A form of striking in which the foot is used to give impetus to a ball.
labyrinthine reflex A protective reflex crucial for survival in which the baby “rights” or elevates the head in response to being placed in a prone position, allowing for the baby to move the head to a position more conducive to breathing and allowing the baby to survive.
large for gestational age (LGA) A birth weight classification indicating the child’s size is greater than the 90th percentile for its gestational age.
leap A form of jumping in which the propelling force is generated in one leg and the landing is accomplished on the nonpropelling leg.
lifespan reflexes Reflexes, like a knee jerk, that endure throughout the lifespan in typically developing and healthy individuals.
locomotion A category of voluntary movement of infancy that includes movements such as creeping, crawling, walking, and running, moving from one point in space to another, and their variations.
macula An area in the center of the retina that predominantly house the cones of the eye.
manipulation A general term referring to hand use, mostly reaching and grasping.
maturation Qualitative and functional changes that occur across time.
maturational period A period in motor development history dominated by the maturational philosophy, a theory that held that biological processes were the main influence in shaping human development.
mechanoreceptors Sensory receptor cells that respond to changes in joint angles, changes in the lengths and tension relationships of muscles, and movements of the head and that are activated by mechanical deformation.
midgrowth spurt A sudden acceleration of growth in height experienced by some children between 6.5 and 8.5 years of age.
Moro reflex A reflex that is a form of a startle reflex in which the stimuli cause the baby’s arms, fingers, and legs to extend abruptly.
motion hypothesis The idea that individuals must attend to objects that move in order to develop a normal repertoire of visual-spatial skills, such as depth perception.
movement time The period of time from the beginning of a movement until its completion.
muscle spindles Cigar-shaped structures that are attached in parallel with the muscles’ largest fibers and that gauge the amount of tension within the muscle and stimulate the skeletomotor neurons, contracting the muscle.
muscular strength The ability to exert muscular force.
norm A societal set of expectations about behavior.
normative/descriptive period A period in motor development history that emphasized norm-referenced standardized tests for measuring motor performance.
norm-referenced (NR) assessment instruments Quantitative evaluations designed to compare an individual‘s skills and abilities with those of others from similar age, gender, and socioeconomic groups.
obesity In adults, having a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference exceeds 102 cm (40 in) in men or 88 cm (35 in) in women (ACSM, 2014)
object play Play involving interaction with toys or tangible objects.
object-control/manipulation skills A category of object manipulation skills that includes overarm throwing, one- and two-handed catching, and striking objects both with and without an implement.
osteoblast A bone building cell that lays down new bone on older bone.
osteoclast A bone removing cell that reabsorbs old bones.
osteopenia The condition of low bone mass density (BMD) that results in osteoporosis.
osteoporosis A disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral to the point that it renders a bone susceptible to fracture.
overuse injuries Injuries that occur as a result of placing the muscular and skeletal system under repeated stress over long periods.
overweight A BMI in adults between 25.0 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2.
palmar grasp reflex A reflexive response to tactile stimulation of the palm of the hand that causes all four fingers of the stimulated hand to flex or close.
parachuting reflexes Reflexes that occur when the infant is tipped off balance in any direction stimulating a protective movement of the arms in the direction of the potential fall.
peak height velocity The maximum rate of growth in body height.
peak weight velocity The maximum rate of growth in body weight.
peer group A social group, especially important during late childhood and adolescence, in which members seek approval and feel attachment and comfort.
peripheral vision Vision to the sides of the eyes resulting in a visual field that covers slightly over 180 degrees.
plantar grasp reflex A reflex evoked by applying slight pressure to the ball of the foot, causing all the toes of that foot to flex.
play An activity that is usually enjoyable and that the participant cherishes. It is a major socializing force and crucial to learning the rules of society.
postural control Also known as balance, a state of equilibrium in which the desired body posture is maintained.
postural reflexes Reflexes believed to be related to the development of later voluntary movement like crawling, standing, or walking.
prehension The act of grasping, including approaching, grasping, and releasing objects that is critical to the development of a multitude of hand movements used throughout the lifespan.
presbyopia The inability to focus clearly on near objects.
primitive reflexes The infant reflexes that serve predominantly for survival through protection and nutrition.
process-oriented assessment Assessment concerned more with technique used to perform a task.
product-oriented assessment Assessment concerned more with performance outcomes (how far was the ball thrown) than the technique used to perform a task.
proprioceptive system A group of sensory receptors located in the joints, muscles, tendons, & labyrinth of the inner ear making it possible for people to be aware of their own movements and to perceive the location of their body parts in space without visual reference to them.
proximodistal A developmental direction in human growth and motor development proceeding from central portions of the body outward toward the periphery of the body (e.g., out to the fingers and down to the toes).
pull-up reflex A reflex elicited by placing an infant in a supported standing or sitting position, holding baby’s hands, & carefully tipping the child in any direction, causing supporting arm(s) to flex or extend in an apparent effort to maintain the upright position.
punting Kicking in which an airborne ball is struck with the foot.
quantitative evaluations Evaluations determined through data collection and the use of statistics.
reaction time The time it takes for an individual to respond to a stimulus.
readiness The establishment of the minimum characteristics necessary for the acquisition of a particular human behavior.
reflexive period A period of motor development occuring in last third of prenatal state & initial weeks following birth during which infant reflexes develop & serve as a necessary stepping stone to both cognitive (intellectual) & motor development.
retina The eye’s light-sensitive tissue.
rods Photoreceptors within the eye’s retina that make colorless night vision possible.
rubella A highly contagious virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, mild fever, headache, aching joints, and a pink rash on the face, body, arms, and legs that can cause damage to a developing fetus.
running A form of human locomotion characterized by an alternate support phase and an airborne or flight phase; the airborne phase distinguishes walking from running.
sarcopenia An “age-related, involuntary loss of skeletal muscle and the corresponding strength” that can occur as a result of disuse but may also occur as a result of typical biological (e.g., hormonal) changes that accompany older age (Walston, 2012, p. 1).
self-esteem The degree to which a person believes himself or herself to be competent, successful, significant, and worthy.
semicircular canals A vestibular apparatus consisting of fluid-filled ducts that lie at right angles to one another that are capable of registering changes in head motion.
skeletal age The most widely accepted measure for determining stage of maturation that uses predictable changes in bone structure.
skinfold calipers A tool used to estimate body composition indirectly.
skip A movement consisting of a forward step followed by a hop on the same foot with an alternating leading leg.
slide A movement consisting of a sideways step followed by a leap onto the trailing foot.
smooth ocular–motor pursuit system A component of the ocular–motor system capable of matching eye-movement speed to the speed of a projectile, thus maintaining a stable retinal image.
Snellen eye chart A chart that is used to determine static visual acuity, the most common technique being an individual reading the smallest letters possible on the chart.
social role A special position an individual possesses within a network, which indicates his or her behaviours, expectations, and responsibilities.
socialization A process of learning and social development which occurs as we interact with one another and become familiar with social worlds.
speed/accuracy trade-off A form of compensation in which individuals are willing to sacrifice speed for accuracy.
stability A category of voluntary movements that includes a wide range of movements, from head control to the eventual attainment of upright posture.
stage A particular time in the human lifespan characterized by behaviors that are thought to be unique to that time period.
standard deviation A linear measure of variability that measures the degree to which the scores vary about the mean of the distribution.
static balance The ability to maintain a desired body posture when the body is stationary.
stature The measurement of total body length as standing height, the distance between the vertex and the floor.
stepping reflex A reflex elicited by holding the infant upright with the feet touching a supporting surface putting pressure on the bottom of the feet. The stimulus on the bottom of the feet results in a walking-like action of the legs.
strategic compensation A series of unique compensatory steps older adults may take to improve the safety of their driving.
stress The physical and emotional tension felt as a result of a person facing challenges.
striking A fundamental movement in which the performer uses a designated body part or some implement to project an object.
subcortical Below the level of the cortex of the brain.
subcutaneous adipose tissue Fat tissue found directly below the skin.
sucking reflex A sucking response elicited when the lips are stimulated, such as by the touch of the mother’s breast or a finger.
support phase A phase in walking or running when balance is maintained on only one foot.
swimming reflex A reflex elicited when the baby is held horizontally causing the movement of the arms and legs in a well-coordinated swimming-type action.
swing phase A phase of the gait cycle in which the foot or toes of one leg leave the supporting surface and ends when the heel or foot of the same leg contacts the ground again.
symmetric tonic neck reflex A reflex elicited by placing baby in a supported sitting position & tipping the infant backward far enough that the neck eventually extends, causing a corresponding symmetrical extension of the arms and flexion of the legs.
teratogen An environmental agent that causes harm to the embryo or fetus.
test battery A group of tests designed for a specific purpose, e.g., to assess the physical fitness of older adults.
test reliability An indicator of the consistency of measurement.
testosterone A steroid hormone that develops male secondary sexual characteristics.
thalidomide A tranquilizing drug responsible for more than 5,000 malformed births in Europe affecting the tissue or organ system that was growing and developing the fastest at the time of exposure.
throwing An object control skill in which an object is propelled through the air via the hand and arm.
tracking Visually following a projectile in order to gain information regarding the object’s height.
Type I muscle fibers Slow-twitch muscle fibers.
Type II muscle fibers Fast-twitch muscle fibers.
ultrasound A test administered by placing a small transmitter on the abdomen of a pregnant woman in order to provide details about the baby and show the placement and structure of the placenta.
unilateral dominance A characteristic of individuals who are right-eyed and right-handed or left-eyed and left-handed.
upright bipedal locomotion Locomotion characterized by a progressive alternation of the leading leg and continuous contact with the supporting surface.
velocity curve A graphical measurement that plots increments of change in growth per unit of time.
vestibular apparatus A system located in the inner ear that is responsible for registering head motion and accompanying body motion.
visual acuity The ability to see detail in an object.
visual cliff The platform used in Gibson and Walk’s 1960 study that created the appearance of a drop-off or cliff and demonstrated that infants are capable of organizing depth clues during the first year of life.
visually guided reaching Reaching that is both visually initiated and visually controlled.
voluntary movement Movement that appears after the fourth postnatal week that is not governed by reflexes and is performed a result of conscious or volitional effort.
walking Locomotion characterized by a progressive alternation of the leading leg and continuous contact with the supporting surface.
Created by: RLD



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