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KINE 1035 Ch. 1


Motor Development The continuous, age-related process of change in movement as well as the interacting constraints
Motor Learning The relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience
Motor Control The study of the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement
Physical Growth An increase in size or body mass resulting from an increase in complete, already formed body parts
Physiological Maturation A qualitative advance in biological makeup that may refer to cell, organ, or system advancement in biochemical composition rather than to size alone
Aging The process, occurring with the passage of time, that leads to loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death
Newell's Constraints Model A framework emphasizing that movements arise from the interactions of the individual, the environment in which movement occurs, and the task to be undertaken
Constraint A characteristic of the individual, environment, or task that encourages some movements while discouraging others
Individual Constraints A person’s unique physical and mental characteristics
Structural Constraints Individual constraints related to the body’s structure (e.g. height, weight, muscle mass)
Functional Constraints Individual constraints related to behavioral function (e.g. motivation, experiences, attentional focus)
Environmental Constraints Constraints related to the world around us (e.g. surfaces, temperature, humidity, available light) location)
Task Constraints Constraints including the goals and rule structure of a movement or activity
Skill Acquisition Acquisition of a set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capacity for movement
Learning-Performance Distinction The finding that performance measures during acquisition may mask the true degree of learning that has occurred
Longitudinal Research Study A study in which the same individual or group is observed performing the same tasks or behaviors on numerous occasions over a long time
Cross-sectional Research Study A study in which developmental change is inferred by observing individuals or groups of varying ages at one point in time
Cohort A group whose members share a common characteristic, such as age or experience
Mixed-longitudinal, or Sequential Research Study A study in which several age groups are observed at one time or over a shorter time span, permitting observation of an age span that is longer than the observation period
Created by: RLD