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PHARMACOLOGY MIDTERM

MIDTERM UNIT 1-6

QuestionAnswer
Explain what an antagonist is. A DRUG THAT INHIBITS ANOTHER MED
Identify what drug receptors include. PROTIEN MOLECULES ON THE SURFACE OF A TARGET CELL THAT BINDS LIGANDS
With respect to the administration of a medication, evaluate when the serum level of the drug's concentration should be checked. WHEN THE CLINICIAN SUSPECTS THE MED IS ACCUMILATING IN THE BLOOD STREAM
When dosing intravenously, determine which medication requires a peak level to be drawn 15–30 minutes after a dose and a trough level to be drawn 5 minutes prior to the next scheduled dose. NETILMICIN
Determine what the therapeutic index of a drug represents. IT QUANTIFIES THE THERAPUTIC WINDOW OF A DRUG
Evaluate the options, and determine the implication of a narrow therapeutic window. TIGHT MONITIRNG OF A THERAPUTIC INDEX IS REQUIRED
Determine how the clinician knows when a drug has reached a steady state. WHEN THE THERAPUTIC EFFECTIVNESS OF A DRUG IS 4-5 X GREATER THAN THE HALF LIFE OF A MED
Determine a factor that may cause variations in drug responsiveness. RENAL FUNCTION
Propose a chief characteristic of an agonist.` IT CAN BE ENDOGENOUS, EXOGENOUS, FULL, OR PARTIAL
Explain what an antagonist is. IT IS A PHARACEUTICAL LIGAND THAT COMPETES FOR HORMONE BINDING
When calculating the therapeutic index of a medication, determine what LD50 represents. IT IS AN INDICAITON OF THE LEGAL TOXCITY OF A SUBSTANCE
Determine how the level of a medication's minimum effective concentration (MEC) is related to its minimum toxic concentration (MTC). A MEDICATION THAT IS UNABLE TO SURPASS MEC LEVELS CAUSES THERAPUTIC FAILURE
Explain the relationship of an administered medication and its effect. THERE IS A RECIPRICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ADMINISTERED MEDICAITON AND ITS EFFECT
Determine what the therapeutic index of a drug represents. IT QUANTIFES THE THERAPUTIC WINDOW OF A DRUG
Identify what drug receptors include. SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT CAN DETECT CHANGES IN THE EXTRACELLUALR ENVIRON.
Evaluate the list of options, and determine the characteristic that causes plasma concentration variability in an administered medication. DRUG INTERACTION
Evaluate the options, and determine the implication of a narrow therapeutic window. DRUG DOSES MUST BE TITERED CAREFULLY TO AVOID ADVERSE REACTIONS
Determine what optimal instruction is necessary on a standardized prescription. SPECIFIC SET OF DIRECTIONS
Determine a prescriber's selection of a medication for a particular treatment. THE PRESENCE OF AN UNDERLYING CONDITON
Determine a drug that has a low potential for abuse and a low risk of dependence. AMBIEN
Determine what element of a standard prescription should be avoided to minimize the potential for dispensing errors ABBREVIATIONS
Determine a drug that has a moderate potential for physical and psychological dependence. TYLENOL #3
Determine a characteristic of a valid prescription. IT MUST BE ISSUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SOUND PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
Identify which provider must have a DEA number to prescribe controlled substances. PODIETRIST
Explain how a provider assesses risk with opioid use. BY CHECKING A URINE SAMPLE OF PRESCRIBED DRUG OR OTHER ILLICIIT SUBSTNACES
Identify which provider must have a DEA number to prescribe controlled substances.` PA
Determine a drug that has a moderate potential for physical and psychological dependence.` ANABOLIC STEROIDS
Explain why verbal prescriptions can be particularly problematic. THEY CAN BE EASILY MISUNDERSTOOD
Conclude which of the following applies to prescriptions. A PROVIDERS WRITTEN INSTRUCITON AUTHORIZING A MEDICAL TREATMENT
Determine what a plan for monitoring medication action involves. DETERMINATION OF AN END POINT FOR THERAPHY
Identify an important step in ensuring the validity of a prescription. A THERAPUTIC OBJECTIVE MUST BE SELECTED
Determine what optimal instruction is necessary on a standardized prescription. A REMINDER OF THE PURPOSE OF THE MEDICAITON
Determine a drug that has a lower potential for abuse. PAREPECTLIN
Identify a required element of a standard prescription for a noncontrolled substance. PT NAME
Identify the mind and body practice administered by a trained professional. HYPNOTHERAPY
A 48-year-old female with flu-like symptoms. She has a history of COPD, and her med include Spiriva. She has been taking Comtrex Day Time Cough & Cold medicine during the day and Nyquil at night. Determine what other symptoms the clinician can expect BLURRED VISION & TINNITUS
Determine how vitamin D deficiency is manifested in adults. EXACERBATION OF ASTHMA
Recommend how clinicians can prevent potential abuses of OTC medications with their patients. ENCOURAGE PT TO ASK PHARMACIIST ABOUT SIDE EFFECTS AND INTERACTONS -Encourage patients to disclose a list of all prescription and nonprescription drugs.
Conclude why people self-medicate.` URGENT NEED: THEY DONT FEEL WELL
Explain why dextromethorphan is a potentially dangerous OTC medication. IT HAS SIGNIFIANT ALCHOL CONTNENT
Identify a form of alternative medicine practice. PRAYER
Identify a form of alternative medicine practice. THERAPUTIC TOUCH
Perceive a chief characteristic of nutraceuticals. THEY ARE NOT TESTED OR REGULATED BY FDA
Identify the mind and body practice administered by a trained professional. QI GONG
Conclude how alternative therapy is used. FOR STRESS REDUCTION
Perceive how a thiamine deficiency is manifested. CONFUSION, MUSCLE WEAKNESS
Identify the OTC medication that can impair driving. TAGAMENT HB
A 52-year-old male has been taking Ambien CR 12.5 mg every night for sleep for the last 3 years. He currently has the flu. Determine the OTC medication that he should avoid. DELSUM & NYQUIL & PEPTO BYSMAL
Estimate a major risk associated with self-medicating. POTENTIAL ABUSE
Conclude how alternative therapy is used. FOR MANAGING CHRONIC DISEASE
Relative to OTC drug use, determine which of the following should clinicians expect to see in their patients. PT MAY BE FRUSTRATED D/T FSILED ATTEMPTS TO SELF MEDICATE
Determine how vitamin D deficiency is manifested in adults. OSTEOMALACIA
Perceive a chief characteristic of an over-the-counter drug. ITS BENEFIT OUT WEIGHS RISK
Determine how the protein-binding capacity of selected medications affects the geriatric population. POLYPHARMACY THAT INTCLUDES OTC CAN REDUCE PROTEIN BINDING CAPACITY FOR SPECIFIC MEDS
Propose which homeostatic response affects drug absorption in the elderly. DELYAED GASTRIC EMPTYING
Determine how age-related changes affect the kidney in the context of drug elimination. MEDICATION DOSING OF DRUGS THAT RELY ON RENAL ELIMINATION SHOULD BE LOWERED
Determine one of the most important considerations in adolescent pharmacology DRUG ADDICTION
Determine a cause of slowed drug metabolism in an older adult. EXCESSIVE ALCHOL CONSUMPTION
Determine which medication a 10-day-old infant runs the risk of toxicity with and why. PHENYTOIN: DECREASED PROTIEN BINDING CAPACITY
Determine how pharmacokinetic gender differences are manifested in the body's systems. MEN HAVE A HIGHER GFR THAN WOMAN, GIVING MEN A HIGHER CLEARNAC RATE OF MEDS ELIMINATED BY KIDNEY
Determine how age-related changes affect the kidney in the context of drug elimination. DRUG HALF LIFE IS PROLONGED D/T DELAYED ELIMINATION
Explain why pharmacotherapeutics for adolescents is challenging. MUCH OF WHAT IS KNOWN IS BASED ON ADULT MONITORING
Determine one of the most important considerations in adolescent pharmacology. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF TREATEMNT
Perceive how the U.S. population is affected by age-related changes in pharmacotherapeutics. DRUG DISTRIBUTION IS IMPACTED BY INCREASEOF BODY FAT AS WE AGE
Determine how a clinician can correct medication dosing when the kidneys are impaired. THE COCKCROFT-GOLFT FORMULA CAN BE USED TO MAKE A ROUGH EXTIMATION
Identify why men have generally poorer outcomes than women. MEN HAVE A HIGHER RISK OF PREMATURYLY DYING FROM HEART DISEAE
Determine a placenta function that protects the fetus from maternal circulation. CAN TURN TOXIC ACTIVE FORMS OF MED INTO NON TOXIC NON ACTIVE FORM
Judge how the clinician can tell if a patient is having a type II allergic response. INGESTED DRUG HAS TRIGGERED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
Identify a type of antagonistic drug interaction. DISPOSITONAL ANTAGONISM
Explain how adverse drug reactions can be classified to capture reactions associated with chronic cumulative medication exposure. CLASSIFY A REACTION BASED ON THE TIME IT TAKES A MED TO CAUSE A REACTION
Identify a common medication classification that is subject to interactions with herbal supplements. ANTICOAULANTS
The cytochrome system is responsible for triggering drug–drug interactions. Determine the cause of these reactions. GENETIC PREDISPOSITION
Assess which is true about adverse drug reactions. THEY ARE UNINTENDED EFFECTS CAUSED BY ADMINISTRATION OF A DRUG
Deduce why the rights of safe medication administration have been developed TO ENSURE PROPER THERAPUTIC TREATMENT FOR THE PT
Identify a common medication classification that is subject to interactions with herbal supplements CARDIOVASCULAR
Propose how medication errors can be avoided. INCLUDE REDUNDANT CHECKPOINTS FOR PRESCRIBING, DISPENSIG AND ADMINISTERING MEDS
Differentiate between stage II and stage IV acetaminophen toxicity. IN STAGE II HEPATIC INJURY CONTINEUS, WHERAS RECOVERY BEGINS IN STAGE IV
Identify a type of antagonistic drug interaction. CHEMICAL ANTAGONISM
Determine the type of medication that remains bound to a receptor site, thereby blocking the action of warfarin. BARBITURATE
Determine the common symptom of an allergic reaction in response to an administered medication RASH
Conclude the goal of managing drug interactions TO OPTIMIZE TREATMENT WHILE MINIMIZING INTERACTONS
The cytochrome system is responsible for triggering drug–drug interactions. Determine the cause of these reactions. OVERALL HEALTH STATUS
Explain how a drug can cause a change in the absorption of another drug from the intestinal lumen. AN H2 RECEPTOR BLOCKER RAISES GI PH
Perceive how receptor sensitivity can modify drug–receptor interactions. THE DRUG CAN PRODUCE A MORE PROFOUND EFFECT ON THE TARGET
Explain how the authority to prescribe medications is established. STATE LAW DICTATES WHO CAN PRESCRIBE MEDICATIONS
Determine by which methods health insurers influence prescribing procedures.` INSURERS HAVE PROTOCOLS THE PRESCRIBERS MUST FOLLOW
Explain controlled substances. MEDIDAITONS THAT CAN HAVE A DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON A PERSONS HEALTH AND WELFARE
Determine a characteristic of a scheduled drug SCHEUDLED I DRUGS HAVE NO ACCEPTED MEDICAL USE
Propose what constitutes unethical behavior in a prescriber of a controlled substance. PRESCRIBING MEDS FOR A FRIEND OR FAMILY MEMBER
Determine a general prescribing rule for scheduled drug. MULTIPLE PRESCRIPTONS FOR THE SAME DRUG CAN BE PRESCRIBED FOR A LATER DATE
Conclude how the clinician acknowledges the competency of a patient THE PT IS BOTH LEGALLY AND CLINICALLY COMPETANT
Determine a general prescribing rule for scheduled drug. MEDS WITH HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE CAN BE REFILLED WITHOUT A NEW SCRIPT'
Propose why advanced practice nurses (APNs) should avoid off-label prescribing. COURTS MAY DETERMINE PACKAGE INSERT TO BE FULL LIST OF INDICAITONS AND TAKE NP LICENSE AWAY
Conclude how the clinician acknowledges the competency of a patient. CLINICAL COMPETANCE IS DETERMINED WHEN PT UNDERSTANDS PROCUDURE OR SERVICE
Conclude how the treatment of pain has affected prescription practices. THE CHRONIC USE OF NARCOTICS FOR PAIN HAS LEAD TO OVERDOSE AND DEATH
Propose how abuses in prescribing are limited. SCHEUDLED MEDS MUST BE WROTE ON TAMPER PROOF PRESCRIPTON PADS
Propose what constitutes unethical behavior in a prescriber of a controlled substance. SELLING SCRIPTS TO VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
Determine the purpose of the Controlled Substances Act. THE STATUE EXPANDS FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TO CONTROLLED SUBSTNACES
Conclude which of the following is an FDA violation associated with misprescribing. CRIMINAL CHARGES AT THE STATE OR FEDERAL LEVEL
Propose why advanced practice nurses (APNs) should avoid off-label prescribing. THERE ARE NO LAWS THAT GOVERN OFF-LABEL PRESCRIBING OR LAWS TO PROTECT NPS
Determine the kind of legal sanctions that health care providers face for inappropriate prescribing. BREACH OF CONTRACT FROM 3RD PARTY INSURANCE
Propose why a clinician would engage in off-label prescribing. THERE IS NEW INFO AVAILABLE TO TREAT CERTAIN CONDITIONS
Created by: krystalcarey
 

 



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