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social psych exam #3

TermDefinition
conformity A change in ones behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.
informational social influence Conforming because we see others as a source of information to guide our behavior; Belief that others interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action.
private acceptance Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they're doing or saying is right.
private acceptance What does informational social influence result in?
public compliance Conforming to other people's behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what they're saying or doing.
Sherif's Study Public compliance or private acceptance? Research suggested private acceptance. People were relying on other people to define reality and came to privately accept the group estimate.
contagion The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd.
when are people most likely to conform? When the situation is ambiguous, a crisis, or when other people are experts.
ambiguous The most crucial variable; When you are uncertain, you're most open to influence others. More uncertainty = more reliance on others.
crisis Seeing how others are acting and doing the same. Panicked people may not be behaving rationally.
experts Looking at a flight attendant to see what their reaction is.
ambiguity The most crucial variable of conformity.
social norms the implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members.
normative social influence conform in order to be liked and accepted by others. Results in public compliance but not necessarily private acceptance.
Asch's Study Light study. Conformity for normative reasons can occur because we don't want to risk social disapproval. People know they're wrong and do it anyway. Power of social disapproval in shaping ones behavior. Results in public acceptance.
normative social influence the need to be accepted
foot in the door technique Getting people to agree first to a small request makes them more likely to agree later to a second, larger request.
door in the face technique first, asking people for a large request that they will probably refuse makes them more likely to agree to a second, smaller request.
propaganda deliberate, systematic attempt to advance a cause by manipulating mass attitudes and behaviors, often through misleading or emotionally charged information.
obedience to authority a social norm (obedience). There would be chaos without. We are socialized to obey legitimate authority figures, Ex: traffic lights.
consequences of obeying orders hurting/killing someone.
Milgram Studies people obeying an authority figure to increase levels of shock until they reached the max 450 volts. 62.5% of participants delivered the max shock.
3 critical variations to the Milgram Studies 1. experimenter never instructed the level of shock 2. experimenter left the room instructing the participant to continue without him 3. extra confederate recorded length's of learners responses instead of suggesting level of shock
group two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other.
why do people join groups? as an important source of info, helps us resolve ambiguity in the social world, important aspect of identity-defines who we are and feel distinct from other groups, establishment of social norms.
social roles shared expectations of a group about how particular people are supposed to behave in that group.
implications of social roles people may get lost in those roles. Ex: prisoners vs. guards from Stanford Prison Experiment.
homogenous groups are more cohesive.
diverse groups perform better.
social facilitation people do better on simple tasks and worse on complex when they are in the presence if others and their individual performance can be evaluated.
one theory that explain arousal and social facilitation other people cause us to become alert and vigilant.
one theory that explain arousal and social facilitation other people make us apprehensive about how we're being evaluated.
one theory that explain arousal and social facilitation other people distract us from the task at hand.
social loafing people do worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can't be evaluated.
in what culture is social loafing stronger? stronger in Western cultures than Asian due to Asian cultures using interdependent self, reducing social loafing tendencies.
deindivduation loosing of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be differentiated. Leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts. Ex: in a crowd
examples of deindividuation massacre at My Lai during the Vietnam war, mobs of soccer fans attacking each other, KKK lynching of African Americans.
why does deindividuation lead to impulsive/violent acts? makes people feel less accountable, increases obedience to group norms. It depends on the norm of the group whether there will be violence.
transactive memory the combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of one individual.
groupthink a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.
antecedents of groupthink the group is highly cohesive, valued and attractive, people want to be members.
symptoms of groupthink illusion of invulnerability, belief in the moral correctness of the group, self censorship, direct pressures on dissenters to conform, illusion of unanimity, mindguards.
mindguards group members protect the leader from contrary viewpoints.
defective decision making of groupthink incomplete survey of alternatives, failure to examine risks of favored alternative, poor information search, failure to develop contingency plans.
avoiding groupthink remain impartial, seek outside opinions, create subgroups, seek anonymous opinions.
Created by: meglad93