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Pharmacology

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

QuestionAnswer
A patient was given a 200mg dose of a drug IV, and 100mg was eliminated during first two hours. Of the drug follow first ordee elimination kinetics, how much of the drug will remain 6 hrs after its administration? 25mg. One half of the dose is eliminated in the fist two hrs so its elimination half life equals two hrs. With the passage of each half life the amount in the body (or in the blood) will decrease to 50% of a former level.6 hrs after 200 to 100, 100 to 50.
Drug that are administer IV are?? 100% bioavaible.IV administration does not involve absorption because there's not movement from the site of administration into the blood. The IV route avoids first pass metabolism which is common with orally administer drugs.
Drugs that are highly bound to albumin: Can undergo competition with other drugs for albimin binding sites. Since most drugs are lipid soluble they will need a carrier in the blood, most commonly albumin. Highly protein boud drugs are good candidates for interactions with others that area bound
Most drugs gain entry to cells by: Passive diffusion with first order kinetics. Cobcentration gradient and lipid solubility are important determinants for the rate of diffusion. Only a few drugs are substrates for active transport like active tubular secretion(penicillin) or penetrate memb
A subject in whom the renal clearance of insulin is 120mL/min is given a drug, the clearance of which is found to be 18mL/min. If the drug is 40% plasma protein boudn, how much filtered drug must be reabsorbed in the renal tubules? 54mL/min. The formula to use is Cl=ff×GFR. The drug is 40%protein bound so rhe ff=60%. 120mL/min×60%=72mL/min theoretical clearance of the drug. Since only 18mL/min was actually cleared, there must have been tubular reabsorption of the drug. 72-18=54mL/mi
If a drug i known to be distributed into total body water, what dose (mg) is needed to obtain an initial plasma level of 5 mg/L in a px weighing 70 kg? 210. this is a Loading dose question. the equation for loading dose or the volume of distribution equation can be used (LD= Vd X Cp). sice the px weighs 70 kg and 60%of body weigh is water, he has 42 L (70 L X 60%) of total body water. LD= 42 L X mg/L =
which of the following is a phase II drug metabolism reaction associated with a genetic polymorphism? Acetylation. phase II drugs metabolism involves the transfer of chemical groupings (acetyl, glucuronide, glutathione) to drugs or their metabolism via conjugation reactions involving transferase enzymes. acetylation reactions are associated with a genetic
a 500mg dose of a drug has therapeutic efficacy of 6 h. if half life of the drug is 8 h, for how long would a 1-8 dose be effective? 14h. the fact that the drug has therapeutic efficacy for 6 h has not direct relationship to its hals life it simply means that the drug is above its minimal effective concentration for 6 h. doubling the drug (to 1g) means that the drug level will be above
a woman is taking oral contraceptive (OCs). which of the following drugs is unlikely to reduce the effectiveness of the COs? ketoconazole. azole antifungals (ketoconazole) are inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially CYP3A4, the most abundant isozyme form of the huma liver. the 3A4 isozyme metabolizes a wide range of drugs. ketoconazole would actually rise the plas
which statement is accurate for the drug sshown in the exampe below? 100mg----- 50mg----- 25mg----- 12.5mg (all of these each 2h) the rate of elimination varies directly with the dose. in first order kinetics the elimination rate of a drug is directly proportional to its plasma concentration, which in turn is proportional to the dose, drugs that follow first order elimination have a
normally, acetaminophen has a Vd = 70L and CL = 350 mL/min. if acetaminophen was administered to a px with 50% reanl fucntion, what parameter would differ from normal? maintenance dose would be lower. the px has renal disfunction which reduces renal clearance. this would neccesitate a lower maintenance dose for medications such as acetaminophen. the maintenance dose equation (MD = CL X Css X dosing interval/f) factors
pharmacokinetic characteristics of propanolol include Vd + 300 L/70kg, CL =70mL?min, and oral bioavailability f= 0.25. what is the dose needed to achieve aplasma level equivalent to a steady state level of 20 ug/L? 24mg.loading dose = Vd XCp/f Ld = 300 L X 20ug/L/0.25 =24,000 ug or 24mg.
with IV infusion, a drug reaches 50% of its final steady state in 6h. the elimination half life of the drug must be approximately 6h. the rules for time to steady state are that it takes 4-5 half life to reach clinical steady state. it also takes ones half to get half way to steady state. since the drug got 50% of the way to steady state in 6h, its half must be 6h.
at 6h after IV administration of bolus dose, the plasma level of a drug is 5mg/L. if the Vd = 10L and the elimination half life = 3h, what was the dose administered? 200mg.at 6h after IV injection (which correspond to two half lifes of the drug), the plasma level is 5mg/L. extrapolating back to zero time, doubling plasma level for each half life results in an initial plasma level at zero (Co) = 5mg/L X 2 X 2 = 20mg/
an Iv infusion of a drug is started 400 mg/h. if CL = 50 L/h, what is the anticipated plasma level at steady stated? 8 mg/L. MD = CL X Css X dosing interval. since the drug was given by constant IV infusion there is not need to consider the dosing interval. therefore, 400mg/L = 50 L/h X Css. 400 mg/h/50 L/h =8 mg/L.
Created by: Maria Acosta
 

 



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