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Psych 1115 midterm

Psychology? it is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes
Biological influences genes responding to the environment
Psychological influences learned fears and other learned expectations, cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
Socio-cultural influences compelling models
Memory? the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage and retrieval of information
Recall must retrieve information learned earlier (ex: fill in the blanks)
Recognition Identify items previously learned (ex: multiple choice questions)
Relearning The amount of times saved when learning material again (ex: studying for a final exam after learning the material in the semester)
Encoding Getting the information into the memory
Storage Retaining information in memory
Three steps to Atkinson & Shiffron's Model (1968) Step 1 - sensory memory Step 2 - Short-term memory Step 3 - Long-term memory
Working/Short-term memory has a capacity of 7 +/- bits of information, information is processed by using rehearsal, not passive storage
Bradley's Model of Working Memory it includes visual & auditory of new information (phenological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, central executive)
Long-term memory organizes and stores information, relies on two processes (encoding & retrieval)
Explicit Memory memory of facts & experiences that one can consciously know and declare, frontal lobes, involves the hippocampus, memory consolidation
Implicit memory retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent or conscious recollection, includes cerebellum and basil ganglia
Cerebellum it is critical for forming and storing conditioned responses
Basil ganglia it controls mouvement/essential for forming and storing procedural memory and motor skills
How info gets encoded into long-term memory automatic processing (space, time, frequency), effortful processing (requires attention and conscious effort)
Chunking organizes items into familiar, manageable units
Mnemonics memory aids that use vivd imagery and organizational devices , acronyms
Hierarchies use chapter titles, headings, subheadings to organize information into hierarchies, used to narrow down concepts and facts
Spacing effect space out learning, can produce speedy short-term learning
Testing effect repeated self-testing, it is reviewed at the beginning of each class what was learnt last week
Shallow processing encodes on an elementary level: words letters, intermediate level: words sounds
Deep processing encodes semantically, based on the meaning of the words (does it fit in the sentence)
Anterograde Amnesia loss of ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia
Retrograde amnesia it is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred for info that was learned
Flashbulb memory it is a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Retrieval cues memory is stored in a web associated concepts, each piece of information is interconnected with others
Context-dependent memory putting yourself back in context where you experienced something that can prime your memory retrieval
State-dependent What we learn in one state may be easily recalled when we are in that state again
Serial position effect tendency to remember the first and last items on a list than in the middle
Three ways we forget Encoding failure, storage decay, retrieval failure
Memory construction errors it refers to the tendency for post-event information to interfere with the memory of the original event, misinformation effect, source amnesia, deja vu
Source amnesia the inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge
Scientific attitude curiosity, skepticism (not taking things at face value), humility (admit when you're wrong)
Limits to human intuition hindsight bias, overconfidence bias, perceiving oder in random effect
Kahneman and Tversky first people to discover hindsight bias
Operational definitions and replications when doing research, scientist must include it, they are important so that other scientists can replicated findings
Survey information that is collected from a large amount of people, they are influenced by wording and sequence of questions
Correlation coefficient single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables, ranges from +1.00 to =1.00
Positive correlation two variables move or vary in the same direction
Negative correlation two variables move or vary in opposite direction
The psychology experiment When a researcher manipulates one or more factors to observe effect on some behaviour or mental process. it is the only way to identify cause-and-effect
Placebo effect results caused by experiment, how to control for this: single and double blind procedure
WEIRD western, Education, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic
Statistics a branch of math used by to organize, summarize, and interpret data, they are used to describe data and as a basis for inferring information from the data
Mean Average
Median Middle score of a distribution
Mode Most frequent score in distribution
Genes Genes are parts of DNA molecules, which are found in chromosomes in the nuclei of cells
Human genome It is an organism's collection of genes
Adoption studies Compare adopted folks to both their adopted parents and biological relatives
Gene-environment interaction Epigenetic (nature plus nurture)
Evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behaviour and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Darwin's principle of natural selection (mutations) certain biological and behaviour variations increase organism's reproductive and survival chances in their particular environment
Similarities between men and women 45 out of 46 genes are unisex, same body and brain structures and functions, similar levels of intelligence, knowledge, and happiness
Aggression Men , in general, admit to having more aggression and being more aggression. Women are slightly more likely to commit acts of relational aggression
Social power being in positions that involve controlling people and access to resources
Social connection-play Males tend to be more independent than women, whereas women tend to be more interdependent
Emotional labour it is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotion requirements of a job
Third shift all the task that fall under emotional labour
Klinefelter syndrome XXY, 1 in 500-1000 males, can effect physical, language and social development, infertility
Turner syndrome 1 in 2250 female births, missing part of the 2nd X chromosome, short stature, early loss of ovarian function
Androgen Insensitivity syndrome Person is genetically male but is resistant to male hormones, the person has some or all of the physical traits of a women but the genetic makeup of a male, 1 in 20,000 live births
Social learning theory the theory of learning process and social behaviour which proposes that new behaviours can be acquired by observing and imitating others
Gender typing taking on traditional male or female roles
Sexual response cycle excitement, plateau, organism, resolution
Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
Behaviour genetics How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic How behaviour springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral How we learn observable responses
Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-cultural How behaviour and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Ichonic Memory Visual
Echoic memory Auditory
Infantile amnesia not much conscious memory for our first 3 years or so, the memory illusion
Deja vu implicit familiarity without explicit recollection
Henry Molaison (1953) got his hippocampus removed and lost all ability to form new explicit memory
Dunning-Krugar effect overconfidence bias - solving mixed up words
Created by: briannadwyer