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SOL PS 3-5

TermDefinition
proton positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
neutron neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
electron negatively charged particle surrounding the nucleus of an atom
quark subatomic particles that make up protons and neutrons
Dalton an English teacher who developed an early atomic theory describing the atom as indivisible unchanging balls like marbles
Thomson proposed a model of an atom that had negatively charged electrons scattered throughout a ball of positive charge like plum pudding
Rutherford proposed a model of an atom containing mostly empty space with a nucleus with positively charged protons in the center
Bohr suggested that electrons move in specific orbits around the nucleus of an atom like planets around the sun
Chemical Symbol letters used on the Periodic Table to represent an element
Atomic Number smaller number on the Periodic Table indicating the number of protons in an atom of the element
Atomic Mass larger number on the Periodic Table indicating the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of the element
family/group vertical column on the periodic table indicating elements with similar characteristics and same number of valence electrons
period horizontal row on the Periodic Table
metals elements that are good conductors and tend to be shiny and bendable
nonmetals elements that are poor conductors and tend to be dull and brittle; found to the right of the stair step line on the Periodic Table
metalloids used to make semi-conductors, are usually brittle, hard, and somewhat reactive; along the stair step of the Periodic Table
ionic bond a bond between a metal and a nonmetal in which electrons are either lost or gained
covalent bond a bond between a two nonmetals in which electrons are shared
ion an atom that has gained or lost an electron
isotope atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
physical change the chemical composition does not change
chemical change a new substance is formed as atoms rearrange
Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy mass and energy cannot be created or destroyed, they can only change form
Chemical Equation used to represent a chemical change
reactants substances on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation that indicate the starting materials
products substances on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation that indicate the new materials
exothermic chemical reaction that releases energy
endothermic chemical reaction that absorbs energy
nuclear reaction a reaction involving the particles in the nucleus of atoms
fission splitting of the nucleus of atoms which releases a huge amount of energy
fussion combining of nuclei of atoms which releases a huge amount of energy
radioactive waste dangerous product of nuclear reactions
valence electrons outer electrons that are involved in bonding
Created by: sford