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### 6th grade science 1Q exam study guide

What is energy? The ability to do work or to cause change in matter.
How do objects move? Energy is added to them.
How is energy measured? It is measured in terms of work.
How is energy transferred? Every time work is done.
What do moving objects require for motion? Energy is required to set objects in motion.
Explain the relation of mass and energy. The more mass an object has, the faster it is traveling, the more energy it has.
Can energy be created or destroyed? No, energy is not created or destroyed but it is transferred between objects and and it can be transformed into different types and forms of energy.
Can energy be conserved? Yes, energy can be conserved.
What is the definition of work? The transfer of energy to an object by a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force.
What is the formula for work? W=Fd
What does W stand for in the work formula and what unit is it measured in? W stands for work and energy and work is measured in joules (J).
What does F stand for in the work formula and what unit is it measured in ? F stands for the force applied to the object and it is measured in Newtons (N).
What does d stand for in the work formula and what is it measured in? d stands for the distance the object is moved and it is measured in meters.
What is potential energy? Stored energy based on its relative position within a system or its condition.
What is kinetic energy? Energy and motion.
what is gravitational potential energy? Energy stored in an object due to its physical position and the force of gravity acting on it.
Name the 8 forms of energy: Mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, sound, electrical, elastic, chemical, and nuclear.
What is mechanical energy? The energy of an object due to its motion and its position. This energy can be all potential energy or it can be all kinetic energy or it can be a combination of both.
What is thermal energy? The total kinetic energy of all the particles that make up an object.
Do particles move faster or slower at higher temperatures? Particles move faster at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures.
What is electromagnetic energy? Kinetic energy of electromagnetic waves.
What is sound energy and how does sound energy transfer? Kinetic energy caused by vibrations of particles in a medium such as steel, water, or air. As particles of air vibrate they transfer their energy to other particles.
What is electrical energy? Kinetic energy that moves in charges.
What is elastic energy? Potential mechanical energy stored in an object when work is performed to change its shape.
What is chemical energy? Potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of substances.
What is nuclear energy? Potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.
What type of energy is visible light? It is electromagnetic energy.
What type of energy does a computer use? It uses electrical energy.
What type of potential energy is in a rubber band? It has elastic stored energy.
What type of potential energy is food? It is potential chemical energy.
What type of energy does a car horn display? It displays sound energy.
What type of energy is given off by the sun? It gives off nuclear energy.
What is energy transfer? When kinetic energy is passed from one object to another.
What is energy transformation? The change of one form of energy into another.
What is the definition of a system? A group of interacting parts that move or work together.
How does a system that needs energy operate? It requires an input of energy from an outside source.
What is energy leaving a system? Output.
Can energy be transferred and transformed from one part of the system to another? Yes, energy can be transferred from one part of the system to another. Energy can be transformed from one form of energy to another in a system.
What causes some energy to be lost in a system? Friction
Give an example of energy transfer and transformation within a system. When electromagnetic energy travels to the earth from the sun, plants change this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis and humans eat the plants and store the energy.
List the 3 types of systems: Natural, Designed, and a Combination of natural and designed.
Give and example of a natural system. Trees
Give and example of a designed system. A wind up toy
Give and example of a combination of a natural and designed system. A hydroelectric dam
What does kinetic energy depend upon? It depends upon both the mass and speed of an object. If the object is moving, it has the ability to work.
What does potential energy depend upon? It depends upon the position, condition, or chemical composition of the object.
Does an object have to be moving to have the potential to do work? No, an object does not have to be moving to have the potential to do work.
Explain elastic potential energy in a rubber band. It is the energy, or ability to work, when the rubber band is stretched.
Define gravitational potential energy. It depends upon the position of the object to the ground (Earth).
Why does an object that is higher up have more gravitational potential energy? The higher up an object is the farther it has to travel and the more time it has to accelerate (speed up) so it will hit the ground with more force.
Will increasing the speed or mass of an object increase kinetic energy more? Increasing the speed of an object will increase the kinetic energy more than increasing the mass of an object.
What is the formula for kinetic energy (KE)? KE=1/2mvv Kenetic Energy= 1/2 x mass x velocity x velocity
What is mass (m) measured in when using the kinetic energy equation? It is measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg).
What is velocity (v) measured in when using the kinetic energy equation? It is measured in minutes per second (m/s).
True or False. The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it will have. True
True or False. Increasing the object's mass will also increase its kinetic energy. True
What is the formula for gravitational potential energy (GPE)? GPE=mgd Gravitational Potential Energy=mass x gravity x distance
What is the constant of earth's gravity? Earth's gravity is 9.8.
Define scientific method. A set procedure that scientists follow in order to gain knowledge about the world.
List the 6 steps of the scientific method process. Question, Hypothesis, Experiment, Observation, Analyze, and Conclusion.
List the 3 types of variables in the scientific method. Independent, Dependent, and Controlled.
Which variable is the one the scientist changes? The Independent variable is the variable the scientist changes.
Which variable changes when the independent variable changes? The Dependent variable changes when the Independent variable changes.
Which variable does the scientist want to remain the same? The Controlled variable is the variable that the scientist wants to remain the same.
What is the written detailed summary of the main findings of the experiment? The Conclusion is the detailed written summary of the main findings of the experiment.
List the Order of Conclusion (4 steps). Hypothesis, Experiment explained step by step, Data, and Results.
Give an example of how data may be presented in a Conclusion. It can be presented as graphs or charts.
Give 3 examples of electromagnetic energy. Examples are visible light, x-rays, and microwaves.
Give 2 examples of electrical energy in nature and 2 man-made inventions that use electrical energy. Lightening and static electricity shocks are examples of electrical energy in nature and a toaster oven and a computer are examples for man made inventions that use electrical energy.
Give 2 examples of elastic energy. Examples are rubber bands and bungee cords.
Give 4 examples of chemical energy. Examples are batteries, fuels, matches, and food.
Give an example of nuclear energy. An example is the energy given off by the sun.
Give an example of energy transfer. An example is when one ball hits another ball.
Give and example of energy transformation. An example is when electric energy changes into chemical energy (charging a cell phone battery).
What is quantitative data? Data in number form which can be time, measurement, weight.
What is qualitative data? Data that is not in number form such as shiny, feelings.
Created by: gcastillon