Save
Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever
or

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

251 Mind & Brain

Chapter 2

TermDefinition
"The portion of the central nervous system that extends from below the medulla through the spine, protected by the bones of the vertebral column." Spinal cord
What are 2 key features in the nervous system of a bilateral organism? 1.The presence of local, centralized networks withing each body segment 2.Longitudinal transmission of information up and down the body axis between segments
"Proteins that serve as chemical messengers between or within cells." Signaling proteins
"The portion of the nervous system that is made up of the brain and the spinal cord." Central nervous system
"The receptors and nerves that are found throughout the body, outside the brain and spinal cord; includes the somatic nervous system and the automatic nervous system (connects to skin, muscle, and internal organs of the body." Peripheral nervous system
What are the 3 main parts of the brain? 1.Forebrain (also called prosencephalon) 2.Midbrain (also called mesencephalon) 3.Hindbrain (also called rhombencephalon)
"The most anterior of 3 zones in the developing nervous system of vertebrates; develops into structures of the telencephalon (such as the crotex & basal ganglia) and the diencephalon (such as the thalamus & hypothalamus)." Forebrain
"The middle of 3 zones in the developing nervous system of vertebrates; develops in the _____ in the adult brain, below the thalamus and above the pons)." Midbrain
"The msot posterior of 3 zones of developing nervous systems of vertebrates; develops into the structures of the brainstem: midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla." Hindbrain
What are the 2 main subdivisions of the forebrain? 1.Telencephalon 2.Diencephalon
What are the 2 main subdivisions in the hindbrain? 1.Metencephalon 2.Myelencephalon
"(Forebrain) The anterior most section of the vertebrate nervous system, rostral to the diencephalon; includes the grey and white matter of the cortex as well as the basal ganglia, hippocampus, and amygdala." Telencephalon
"(Forebrain) A division of the centrak nervous system encompassing the brain structures immediately rostral to the brainstem, but below the telencephalon; primarily includes the thalamus and hypothalamus." Diencephalon
"(Hindbrain) The region of the central nervous system that lies between the midbrain and medulla; part of the brainstem, it includes the pons and the cerebellum." Metencephalon
"(Hindbrain) The region of the developing nervous system immediately rostral to the spinal cord; it develops in the medulla." Myelencephalon
"(Comes from the word "beak") Anatomical term meaning toward the mouth; opposite of caudal." Rostral
"(Comes from the word "tail") Anatomic term meaning "toward the tail"; opposite of rostral." Caudal
"(Comes from the word "back") Anatomical term meaning toward the top or back; generally contrasted with ventral." Dorsal
"(Comes from the word "belly") Anatomical term meaning toward the bottom or underside; generally contrasted with dorsal." Ventral
"Anatomical term meaning toward the front; opposite of posterior." Anterior
"Anatomical term meaning toward the back; opposite of anterior." Posterior
"Anatomical term meaning toward the top; opposite of inferior." Superior
"Anatomical term meaning toward the bottom; opposite of superior." Inferior
"Anatomical term meaning toward the middle; opposite of lateral." Medial
Anatomical term meaning toward the side; opposite of medial." Lateral
"Anatomical term meaning on the same side; opposite of contralateral." Ipsilateral
"Anatomical term meaning on the opposite side; opposite of ipsilateral." Contralateral
"Anatomical term meaning farther away from the center (toward the far distant end of the limb, such as fingers)." Distal
"Anatomical term meaning near a particular structure closer to the center (part of the limbs closest attached to the body)." Proximal
"Divides the body along its axis (horizontal)." Axial slice
"Divides the body into left and right." Sagittal
"Divides the body into dorsal and ventral." Coronal slice
"Neurons that are specialized to convey sensory information (touch, vibration, temperature, fatigue, itch, stretch, etc.) from the periphery of the body to the central nervous system (receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints)." Sensory neurons
"Neurons that are specialized to convey motor commands from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles of the body." Motor neurons
"The point of interaction between a motor neuron and a muscle cell, similar to a chemical synapse between 2 neurons." Neuromuscular junction
"Chemical substances, released when a neuron is active, that transmit signals to another neuron, changing that second neuron's activity." Neurotransmitters
What are the 2 major compartments of the body? 1.Soma 2.Visceral
What does the soma, one of 2 major compartments of the body, include (3)? 1.Muscles 2.Skin 3.Bones
What does the Visceral contain? Internal organs
What are 8 activities of the body's internal world that is regulated by visceral signal outputs? 1.Heart rate 2.Blood pressure 3.Respiration 4.Temperature control 5.Movements of the stomach and intestinal tract 6.Secretion of digestive enzymes 7.Voiding of the bladder and bowels 8.Sexual organ functions
What are the 2 main components of the peripheral nervous system? 1.Somatic nervous system 2.Autonomic nervous system
"Branch of the peripheral nervous system that detects information about the external world & uses it to guide the body's movements via the body's musculature. Sensory inputs and motor outputs for guiding voluntary body movements (ex: kick a ball)." Somatic nervous system
"Regulates the body's internal world. Usually goes on automatically (ex: digest lunch, sweating in heat, etc.). The branch of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of internal, or visceral, organs, as opposed to skeletal muscles." Autonomic nervous system
What are the 4 kinds of neurons for input and output to the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system? 1. Somatic afferent or somatosensory neurons (input) 2.Somatic efferent or motor neurons (output) 3.Visceral afferent or visceral sensory neurons (input) 4.Visceral efferent or autonomic neurons (output)
What are the 2 subsections of the autonomic nervous system? 1.Sympathetic nervous system 2,Parasympathetic nervous system
"The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is involved in coordinating the activities of the body's organs for fight-or-flight responses. Reacts to threats (ex:quickened heartbeat, increased respiration, increased blood pressure, etc.)." Sympathetic nervous system
"The branch of the autonomic nervous system that coordinates behaviours & physiological processes associated with res and regeneration (ex: heart rate slows, respiration decreases, blood pressure falls, muscle tone relaxes, etc.)." Parasympathetic nervous system
What are the 4 Fs of the sympathetic nervous system? 1.Feeding 2.Fleeing 3.Fighting 4.Fornication (sex)
What are the 4 parts of the spine from top to bottom (neck to pelvis)? 1.Cervical spine 2.Thoracic spine 3.Lumbar spine 4.Sacral spine
Where is the cervical spine located? Within the neck
Where is the thoracic spine located? Within the ribcage
Where is the Lumbar spine located? Between the ribcage and the pelvis
Where is the sacral spine located? Fused together in the bony triangular sacrum that forms the back of the pelvis
"A region of the skin that receives input from a single spinal nerve (if injured, affects a specific part of the body)." Dermatomes (ex:C2, C3, T4, T5, etc.)
"Motor side of the somatic nervous system. Lies within the musculature. Can cause paralysis in different parts of the body if injured (ex: Cervical = C2-C8, thoracic = T1-T12, lumbar = L1-L5, sacral = S1, S2). Myotomes
What is the meeting place for the inputs and outputs of the peripheral nervous system? The spinal cord
"Type of neural tissue consisting of the unmyelinated cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. Home to the cell bodies of neurons and their local connections." Gray matter
"Tissue in the central nervous system consisting of myelinated axons of neurons, which carry information over long distances. Made up of electrically insulated, long-distance connections between neurons)." White matter
"Cells that have not yet differentiated into a specific cell type, and that are capable of giving rise to daughter cells that will differentiate into various types of cells." Stem cells
What are 2 kinds of stem cells? 1.Stem cells that are restricted to producing certain types of cells (ex: neural stem cells) 2.Pluripotent; capable og giving rise to any kind of cell
Sensory input enters the spinal cord from the _____ side, whereas motor output exits the spinal cord from the ____ side. dorsal, ventral
"Regions of gray matter in the ventral part of the spinal cord, containing mostly motor neurons." Ventral horns
"Located just outside the spinal cord, the collection of cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system." Dorsal root ganglion
Somatic sensory input in the spinal cord take input mostly from what (3)? 1.Skin 2.Skeletal muscles 3.Joints
The inputs taken by the somatic sensory neurons in the spinal cord are useful for what (3)? 1.Position 2.Stretch 3.Touch
Visceral sensory neurons in the spinal cord take input mostly from what? Many other tissues, including the internal organs
The inputs taken y the visceral sensory neurons in the spinal cord are useful for what? Give 4 examples. To regulate the internal state of the organism, such as... 1.Temperature 2.Pain 3.Inflammation 4.Fatigue
""Carried toward" the central nervous system" Afferent
""Carried away" from the central nervous system" Efferent
What neurons are the output of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? Visceral motor neurons
Are sensory neurons efferent or afferent? Afferent
Are motor neurons efferent or afferent? Efferent
"An involuntary and automatic motor response to sensory stimulation." Reflex
"A sensory neuron makes an excitatory connection to a motor neuron so that when the sensory neuron is stimulated, it activates the motor neuron in return. Also important in coordinating the activity of the sumpathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems." Reflex arc
Give 4 examples of reflex arc. 1."Knee-jerk" 2.Raising hair follicles in response to cold 3.Producing tears in response to eye irritation 4.Contracting the blood vessels when standing up so as not to faint from loss of consciousness
"Involves a direct connection between a sensory and a motor neuron and involves only one synapse (rare)." Monosyaptic reflex
"A structure that works as a point of connection & communication between one neuron and the other; includes the presynaptic cell membrane, the synaptic cleft between the 2 neurons, & the postsynaptic membrane." Synapse
"An interneuron lies between the incoming sensory neuron and outgoing motor neuron in the circuit, which makes the reflex involve more than one synapse (common)." Polysynaptic reflex
"As opposed to a sensory or motor neuron, a neuron that connects 2 other neurons. Sometimes used specifically to describe small neurons that provide local connections between larger neurons in a given structure (ex: microscopic circuitry of the cortex)." Interneuron
"The automatic contraction of a muscle that has been stretched, to help maintain a constant length and avoid injury." Stretch reflex
Name 3 types of reflex circuits. 1.Reflex arc 2.Monosynaptic reflex 3.Polysynaptic reflex
"A collection of neurons within the central nervous system that is able to spontaneously generate and maintain rhythmic movements such as walking or swallowing." Central pattern generator
"The most caudal structures of the brain, below the diencephalon; composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblogonta." Brainstem
The brainstem acts as a point of communication between the ______ and the most anterior structures of the _______. spinal cord, nervous system
The brainstem is composed of what 3 structures? 1.Pons 2.Midbrain 3.Medulla oblogonta
"12 pairs of sensory and motor neurons that originate from the brain and brainstem to innervate the sensory and motor structures in the region of the head and neck." Cranial nerves
What functions does the medulla oblogonta have? Give 3 examples. Functions that are essential to life, such as... 1.bleeding 2.heart rate 3.blood pressure
What is the basic function of the pons? Relays signals between the cerebellum and cerebrum.
"The most superior part of the central nervous system; this includes the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex, as well as subcortical structures such as the thalamus and basal ganglia." Cerebrum
The cerebrum consists of what 4 parts? 1.Cerebral cortex 2.Basal ganglia 3.Hippocampus 4.Amygdala
What are 10 examples of functions of the pons? 1.Arousal 2.Sleep 3.Breathing 4.Swallowing 5.Bladder control 6.Eye movement 7.Facial expressions 8.Hearing 9.Equilibrium 10.Posture
"A collection of neuron cell bodies within the central nervous system, with multiple _____ typically gathered together to perform similar functions, such as control of a specific motor function or processing of a specific type of sensory info." Nuclei
The inputs and outputs of the midbrain come mostly from what? Explain. The eyes > visual signs from the retina, motor signals to control eye movements, light entry via the iris, image focus via the lens.
"A paired structure located on the posterior side of the midbrain, above the inferior colliculus; important for processing visual inputs and directing automatic eye movement (loactes visual stimuli in space > directs complex movements)." Superior colliculus
"A paired structure located on the posterior aspect of the midbrain, below the superior colliculus; important for processing of auditory inputs (performs parallel functions using auditory inputs)." Inferior colliculus
"Capable of starting, stopping, and modulating the activity of central pattern generators in the brainstem and spinal cord." Command generators
"A gray matter structure in the midbrain, surrounding the cerebral aqueduct; consists of columns of neurons that organize stereotyped forms of basic survival behaviours such as defense, aggression, and reproduction." Periaqueductal gray matter
"A network of neurons within the midbrain that project to the forebrain and are important for regulating consciousness (Regulates states of consciousness; alertness of waking state or unconsciousness of sleeping state)." Reticular formation
"Nucleus in the pons that includes largest collection of neurons containing norepinephrine; these neurons project throughout the brain and serve an important role in alertness & arousal level (alerting signals to the rest of the brain via norepinphrine)." Locus coeruleus
"A monoamine neurotransmitter, used throughout the brain to regulate levels of arousal, alertness, and attention." Norepinephrine
"A collection of cells within the midbrain that is important for movement, cognition, and rewards behaviours (main source of the neurotransmitter dopamine)." Substantia nigra
"A monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in initiating, maintaining, and terminating neural activity for a variety of brain functions, such as movement, cognition, motivation, and reward." Dopamine
"A set of nuclei within the brainstem that contain serotonin neurons, sending projections forward to the telencephalon and diencephalon to regulate a variety of functions, including sleep, appetite, and mood." Midbrain raphe nuclei
"A monoamine neurotransmitter, prduced by neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem and involved in a variety of cuntions including the regulation of mood, sleep, appetite, and social behaviour." Serotonin
What are the 12 cranial nerves? 1.Olfactory 2.Optic 3.Oculomotor 4.Trochlear 5.Abducens 6.Trigeminal 7.Facial and intermediate 8.Vestibulocochlear 9.Glossopharyngeal 10.Vagus 11.Spinal accessory 12.Hypoglossal
Where do cranial nerves emerge from? The brainstem, except olfactory (I) and optic (II), which both emerge from the cerebrum.
WHat is the function of the olfactory (I) nerve? Carries signals for the sense of smell from the nasal passage to the brain.
What is the function of the optic (II) nerve? Carries visual signals from the retina to the thalamus.
What is the function of the oculomotor (III) nerve? Controls eye movement and pupillary constriction.
What is the function of the trochlear (IV) nerve? Controls eye movement
What is the function of the Trigeminal (V) nerve? Controls the muscles of mastication (cheqing); involved in the sensation of touch and pain by the face and mouth.
What is the function of the abducens (VI) nerve? Controls eye movement
What is the function of the facial and intermediate (VII) nerve? Carries signals for the sense of taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); controls the muscles of facial expression; involved in the secretion of tears and saliva.
What is the function of the vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve? Carries signals for the senses of hearing and balance
What is the function of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve? Carries signals for the sense of taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); mediates the swallowing reflex.
What is the function of the vagus (X) nerve? A major input and output pathway for the parasympathetic nervous system; senses aortic blood pressure; slows heart rate; stimulates digestive organs.
What is the function of the spinal accessory (XI) nerve? Controls some muscles for movements of the heaf, neck, and shoulders.
What is the function of the hypoglossal (XII) nerve? Controls muscles of the tongue.
"A large brain structure attached to the back of the pons in the brainstem; important for coordinating smooth, accurate movements." Cerebellum
"What are the 4 layers in the microcircuitry of the cerebelllum (inside to outside)? 1.White matter 2.Granule cell layer 3.Purkinje cell layer 4.Molecular layer
What is the main function of the cerebellum? Makes the body's movements smooth and efficient.
What are 3 outcomes to damaging the cerebellum? 1.Jerky and clumsy movements (to strong or too weak, overshoot or undershoot targets) 2.Maintaining upright balances becomes difficult or impossible 3.Learning new motor responses becomes more difficult
"Model of motor control>Cerebellum takes into account time delays involved in receiving input from sensory organs & sending motor output to the muscles>calculates a model for future potistions of body & external objects > more accurate movement guidance." Forward model
"Part of the diencephalon that is important for homeostasis (ex: temperature regulation, sexual arousal, etc.) and basic survival drives, including sleep, hunger, and thirst. Hypothalamus
_______ nuclei have distinct functions often relating to a specific drive (ex: feeding vs stiety vs heat-shedding behaviours, etc.). Hypothalamic
"Part of the diencephalon containing numerous nuclei, each serve a different region of the cortex. Some act as relays for incoming sensory info, while others synchronize within & among different cortical areas so that they can work in a coordinated way." Thalamus
"The process driven by neurons in the hypothalamus that keeps the body's internal parameters in balance (basic drives to stay alive)." Homeostasis
"The target physiological values for bodily systems, such as temperature or energy balance. Homeostasis seeks to maintain the organism's internal environment at these values in order to sustain life." Set points
What are the 3 categories of compensatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus? 1.Autonomic responses 2.Endocrine responses 3.Behavioural responses
When do compensatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus kick in? When the internal environment deviates too far from the set point.
Where does the thalamus send outputs to, with what purpose (3-4)? 1.Via thalamus to cerebral cortex (which has the power to elaborate basic drives into goals and plans of action) 2.To the autonomic control centers of the brainstem & spinal cord 3.To the pituitary gland (which sends hormonal signals to rest of body)
Name 6 nuclei found in the hypothalamus. 1.Anterior nucleus 2.Sprachiasmatic nucleus 3.Lateral hypothalamic area 4.Posterior nucleus 5.Ventromedial nucleus 6.Arcuate nucleus
What is the function of the anterior nucleus (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? Heat dissipation
What is the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? Circadian rhythms (ex: sleep-wake cycle)
What is the function of the lateral hypothalamic area (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? Appetite and thirst
What is the function of the posterior nucleus (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? heat conservation
What is the function of the ventromedial nucleus (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? satiety (sufficiently full)
What is the function of the arcuate nucleus (1 of 6 nuclei found in hypothalamus)? hormonal regulation
"A chemical that is released by one cell and is intended to affect the functioning of a large number of targets throughout the body." Hormone
"A projection of the inferior surface of the hypothalamus that is involved in releasing a variety of hormones to regulate the function of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, kidneys, gonads, and various other organs in the body." Pituitary gland
"A hormone released by the pituitary gland that facilitates parental and partner bonding, and promotes some forms of social interaction (maternal bonding, lactation, social bonding)." Oxytocin
"The outermost structure of the brain, consisting of cells, dendrites, and synapses; also known as gray matter, Works closely with the thalamus." Cerebral cortex
What are the 4 main functions of the thalamus? 1.Relay sensory info to appropriate areas in cer. cortex 2.Relay motor info to cer. cortex from other motor control structures 3.Relay station between distant areas of c. cortex itself 4.Synchronize neural activity between distant regions to work together
The thalamus and the _________ are highly interconnected. cerebral cortex
"Specialized part of thalamus that is part of the visual pathway relaying info from retina to primary visual cortex (ex:relays info from the light-sensitive neurons of the retina to the cortex, where first stages of visual info processing take place)." Lateral geniculate nucleus
"The region of the occipotal lobe of the brain where visual information is first processed to extract low-level visual features such as position, color, orientation, or spatial frequency." Primary visual cortex (VI)
"Regions of the cerebral cortex that integrates sensory and motor information. Neither purely sensory nor motor areas. Important formore complex forms of sensory processing and motor planning." Association areas
"A thin sheet of inhibitory neurons wrapped around the thalamus; regulates & coordinates the activity of the other nuclei of the thalamus (important for attention, awareness, and consciousness). Connect only to other nuclei of the thalamus." Reticular nucleus
"A procedure that uses surgically implanted electrodes to electrically stimulate specific regions or pathways within the brain." Deep-brain stimulation
"Largest part of the human brain. Pink squishy wrinkly outer layer. Critical for most elaborate forms of human cognition (ex: speaking sentences, planning goals for the future, being aware of the self, thinking about what other people are thinking, etc." Cerebral cortex
"The rounded convolutions on the surface of the cortex; each is bordered by a groove on each side (sulcus)." Gyri (gyrus)
"Grooves between the convolutions (gyri) of the cortex." Sulci (sulcus)
___ and ____ allow the brain to fit a large sheet of cerebral cortex into a small space while minimizing the distance between any 2 neurons. Gyri, sulci
"A large white matter structure connecting the 2 hemispheres of the brain." Corpus callosum
The brain is divided into 2 _____, which are each composed of 4 ______. hemispheres, lobes
What are the 4 lobes? 1.Frontal lobe 2.Temporal lobe 3.Parietal lobe 4.Occipotal lobe
"The region of the cerebral cortex at the front of the brain, anterior to the central sulcus, whose functions include motor control as well as higher cognitive functions such as planning, goal selection, and assigning value to opinions." Frontal lobe
"The inferiormost lobe, below lateral sulcus; functions include identification of visual & auditory stimuli, some aspects of language processing, social cue perception, & functions related to the huppocampus: episodic memory recall & spatial navigation." Temporal lobe
"Lobe whose functions include processing somatosensory information & mapping the locations of visual, auditory, & somatosensory stimuli into coordinates centered on various parts of the body to help guide movements of thos body parts." Parietal lobe
"The posterior lobe of the cerebral cortex, largely devoted to processing visual information." Occipotal lobe
"The large sulcus along the lateral surface of the cerebral cortex, between the precentral and postcentral gyrus, dividing the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe." Central sulcus
Roughly, what is the function of everything in front of the central sulcus? Various forms of motor planning and action
Roughly, what is the function of everything behind and below the central sulcus? Various froms of sensory processing
"The region of the cortex immediately in front of the central sulcus, containing the primary motor cortex." Precentral gyrus
"Located in the precentral gyrus; its cells send motor commands to the muscles of the body to direct simple movements." Primary motor cortex
"The portion of the frontal lobe anterior to the motor cortex of the precentral gyrus; involved in the coordination of complec behaviour via stimulus evaluation, goal-setting, cognition, decision making & motor coordination." Prefrontal cortex
"The underside of the prefrontal cortex, just above the eye sockets; this region is important for assessing value to stimuli based on comparing their properties to internally or externa;;y specified needs of the organism &for modulating emotional states." Orbifrontal cortex
"The region of the gyrus immediately posterior to the central gyrus, containing the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)." Postcentral gyrus
"Located in the postcentral gyrus; the neurons represent tactile sensations from different parts of the external surface of the body & are closely connected with corresponding regions of the primary motor cortex . Sensory input from skin, muscles&joints." Primary somatosensory cortex (S1)
"Medial part of the parietal lobe along the midline of the brain; active during spatial navigation, recollection of the past & future, & mental imagery of scenes or scenarios (thinking of directions & finding them). Active even when we are at rest." Precuneus
"Gray matter structure near the midline of the brain, adjacent to the corpus callosum." Congulate gyrus
"The most superior gyrus of the temporal lobe, adjacent to the lateral sulcus." Superior temporal gyrus
"Located along the transverse temporal gyrus, this region is specialized for receiving and processing auditory infromation, comparable to the primary visual cortex of the occipotal lobe." Primary auditory cortex (A1)
"A gyrus on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe; neurons in this area are part of the ventral pathway for identifying stimuli. Association with identification, categorization,& evalutaiton of visual inputs:faces,cars,&other objects in surroundings." Fusiform gyrus
"A cortical region within the lateral sulcus that plays an important role in sensory perception of the internal state of the body (represents the state of internal organs & registers bodily states like pain, fatigue, hunger, sexual arousal, etc.)." Insula
"A collection of subcortical gray matter structures that are involved in initiating, mainting, and terminating activity in the frontal lobes & other regions of the cortex(facilitate motor control, limb movements, eye movements, motiavtion, reward, etc.)." Basal ganglia
"Part of the basal ganglia, forming a large "C" shaped structure." Caudate nucleus
"Part of the basal ganglia, overlying the globus pallidus & functioning with the caudate nucleus in the regulation of movement, behaviour, and cognition." Putamen
"A region in the ventral part of the basal ganglia, playing an important role in reward, prediction error, and addiction." Nucleus accumbens
"One of the structures of the basal ganglia, located underneath the putamen; contains an external part and an internal part, which respectively play excitatory & inhibitory roles in controlling (regulating) vountary movement and behaviour." Globus pallidus
"A small nucleus located inferior to the thalamus, connecting the indirect pathway in the basal ganglia, and playing an inhibitory role in controlling voluntary movement and behaviour" Subthalamic nucleus
"A collection of evolutionary conserved structures surrounding th brianstem, considered important for motiavtion and emotion." Limbic system
"Part of the limbic system found within the medial temporal lobe, it influences the internal states of the body based on rapidly processed input from the outside world." Amygdala
What is the difference between the hypothalamus and the amygdala? Hypothalamus generates emotions and motivations based on internal environment inputs. Amygdala generates emotions and motivations based on external sensory inputs of vision, hearing, and smell.
"A key brain structure for episodic memory and spatial navigation, with neural circuitry capable of rapid learning and plasticity. Located along the medial edge of the temporal lobe, at the edge of the cerebral cortex." Hippocampus
What are 2 of the most important limbic structures? 1.Amygdala 2.Hippocampus
"Memory for personal experiences that occur at a particular time and place." Episodic memory
"A tract of white matter fibers connecting the hippocampus to the hypothalamus." Fornix
"Part of the hypothalamus that plays a role in linking current needs to memories of past events." Mammillary bodies
"Internal bodily states, akin to the bodily "feel" of emotional states, that can be generated by the limbic system based on sensory input and behavioural context, & that can be used to guide behaviour under conditions of uncertainnty." Somatic markers
"The anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus; near the midline of the brain close to the corpus callosuml often found to be involved in functions such as motor control and decision making." Anterior cingulate cortex
"Fluid-filled cavities within the brain, containing cerebrospinal fluid." Ventricles
How many ventricles are in our brain? 4
"The fluid, chemically similar to blood plasma, that fills the ventricles and flows around the outside of the brain. Helps protect the brain from injury and helps to maintain a stable chemical environment for the neurons." Cerebrospinal fluid
All vertebrates have a nervou system featuring segmental organization and an expansion at the ________ for centralized control, using _____ and ______ sensory inputs. front end, internal, external
The _______ nervous system collects sensory input from both inside and outside the body and transmits it to the ________ nervous system. The _______nervous system carries output signals to the organs as well as the muscles of the body. Peripheral, central, peripheral
Simple spinal ______ allow sensory inputs to direct motor outputs with minimal involvement of the _____ nervous system. reflexes, central
__________ allow for mote complex, coordinated movements such as locomotion (moving from one place to another - walking). central pattern generators
In the brainstem, more elabrate ____ and ________ operate in the handling of special senosry input and in the control of the special movements of the head region. reflexes, central pattern generators
The ______ contains the majority of neurons in the central nervous system, and these are organized as ______, grouped into ______, which are further grouped into ____. cerebellum, folia, lobules, lobes
The extensive circuitry of the _______ allows for smooth, accurate, coordinated movements. cerebellum
The _______ coordinates homeostatic functions, including sleep and eating, to keep the body's internal environment in balance. hypothalamus
The _____ is a relay center that coordinates the flow of sensory information to the cerebral cortex. It also coordinates information flow between distant areas of the cerebral cortex itself. thalamus
The _______ provides the nervous system's most elaborate circuitry for sensor, motor, and intermediate functions. It is divided into four lobes: _____ lobe, ____ lobe, ______ lobe, and _____ lobe. cerebral cortex, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
Circuits of the ______ initiate and maintain internally driven cortical activity, particularly that related to motor control. basal ganglia
The limbic system includes the ____, parts of the _____, the _______, the ____ the ____ and the limbic regions of the _____. Collectively, these regions have important ____ and _____ functions. hypothalamus, thalamus, substantia nigra, amygdala, hippocampus, cortex, motivation, emotional
Created by: jarnol33
Popular Psychology sets

 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards