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developmental psych

test #1

psychoanalytical theory Sigmund Freud; conscious vs. unconscious mind, focuses on past experiences, free association.
operant conditioning B.F. Skinner; punishment and reward/behavioralism.
classical conditioning Pavlov & Watson; stimuli comes first, and then response (behavior) comes second.
cognitive development Piaget; the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it.
humanistic theory Maslow & Rogers; Hierarchy of Basic Needs. 1. self-actualization 2. esteem 3. love/belonging 4. safety 5. physiological
ecological systems theory Bronfenbrenner; type of "systems theory," systems in our environment interrelate and influence each other.
microsystem family, school, peers, religious organization.
mesosystem the interactions between the different parts of a person's microsystem.
exosystem extended family and neighbors.
macrosystem attitudes and ideologies of the culture.
chronosystem environmental changes that occur over the life course.
types of research methods correlational research, experimental research
correlational research seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exist.
experimental research designed to discover casual relationships between various factors.
scientific method identify questions of interest; formulate an explanation, specify a theory, develop a hypothesis; carry out research, operationalize hypothesis, select a research method, collect the data, analyze the data.
genotype genetic material present (not outwardly visible), genetic makeup.
phenotype physical characteristics.
genotype dictates ______? phenotype
monozygotic twins one egg splits to create identical twins, same genotype/phenotype.
dizygotic twins fraternal twins; two eggs are fertilized by two sperm, different genetic makeup.
qualitative influences gender, eye color, things that are NOT measurable.
quantitive influences measurable; calories, medication, hours of sleep, Etc.
validity it represents what it should be representing.
reliability it can be repeated.
ectoderm skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, brain, spinal cord.
endoderm digestive system, liver, pancreas, respiratory system.
mesoderm muscles, bones, circulatory system.
teratogens environmental factors that result in permanent birth defects or death of infant. Includes drugs, maternal illnesses/infections, metal toxicity, physical agents (radiation).
cross-sectional and longitudinal studies the same individuals are studies over a prolonged interval (longitudinal) or many individuals are studies over discrete intervals (cross-sectional).
history-graded influences experiences by groups based on historical moments. Ex. 9/11
age-graded influences experiences (biological or environmental) are similar in specific age group.
sociocultural-graded influences experiences related to culture, social class, where raised, etc.
non-normative life events experiences that are individualized and "atypical" to a larger group. ex. traumatic events, divorce, marriages, etc.
evolutionary theory Darwin; behavioral genetics, draws heavily on the field of ethology.
contextual theory (social/environmental/ecological/systems) Bronfenbrenner & Vygotsky
psychodynamic perspective Erikson; developmental focus is social interaction.
behavioral perspective Bandura; developmental focus is learning through imitation.
what behavioralists would argue that it is nurture over nature? Skinner, Pavlov, Watson
Darwin Evolutionary Theory; developmental focus is natural selection of adaptive traits. He believes development proceeds by behavior reflecting genetic unfolding within an environmental context. Ethological influence.
Ethological influence Darwin
3 types of psychological research 1. correlational research 2. descriptive research 3. experimental research
dominant homozygous RR
recessive homozygous rr
heterozygous Rr
what is behavior the product of? some combination of genotype and phenotype.
3 stages of birth 1. germinal stage 2. embryonic stage 3. fetal stage
germinal stage fertilization to 2 weeks; the shortest stage; methodical cell division.
embryonic stage 2 to 8 weeks; development of major organs and basic anatomy; developing child has three distinct layers – gastrulation (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm)
fetal stage 8 weeks to birth; brain becomes increasingly sophisticated.
3 stages of labor 1st stage- contractions, cervix begins to open. 2nd stage- baby's head emerges, mother gives birth to baby. 3rd stage- birth to the placenta and umbilical cord.
gross motor skills larger movements your baby makes with his arms, legs, feet, or his entire body.
fine motor skills involve the small muscles of the body that enable such functions as writing, grasping small objects and fastening clothing.
nature vs. nurture genes or environment
3 refluxes of infants stepping reflux, grasping reflux, eye-blink reflux
stepping reflux movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor.
grasping reflux infant's fingers close around an object in its hands.
eye-blink reflux rapid shutting and opening of eye on exposure to direct light.
5 senses of infants eyesight, taste, smell, auditory, touch.
eyesight in infants eyesight is 20/200 to 20/600 at newborn; by 6 months, average infant's vision is already 20/20.
auditory in infants more sensitive to very high and very low frequencies
smell in infants used to distinguish mother's scent, well developed.
taste in infants innate sweet tooth, develop preferences based on what mother ate during pregnancy.
touch in infants infants are born with the capacity to experience pain. touch is one of the most highly developed sensory systems. infants gain information through touch (through their mouth).
vision in late adulthood optic nerve becomes less efficient, distant objects less acute.
hearing in late adulthood high frequencies are hardest to hear, hearing impairments.
taste and smell in late adulthood both senses become less discriminating in old age due to decline in taste buds on tongue. Olfactory bulbs in the brain shrink and reduce the ability to smell.
overall changes as you become elderly peripheral slowing hypothesis and generalized slowing hypothesis.
peripheral slowing hypothesis suggests that overall . processing speed declines in the peripheral nervous system with increasing age.
generalized slowing hypothesis theory that processing in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, is less efficient.
Created by: meglad93