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243 Life Dev.

Chapter 4

What are the 2 earliest emotions (primary emotions) shown by newborns? 1.Pain (cry when hurt or hungry) 2.Pleasure (happy when fed or drifting off to sleep)
"A smile evoked by a human face, normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth. It is a developmental milestone as it indicates the infant is intentionally communicating with others." Social smile
"The primary stress hormone; fluctuations in the body's cortisol level affect human emotion (sadness)." Cortisol
What are the 2 main kinds of social fear expressed by babies (beginning around ages 6-9 months)? 1.Seperation anxiety 2.Stranger wariness
If seperation anxiety remains strong after age ___, it is considered an emotional disorder and is accompanied by physiological signs of distress. 3 years old and over
"An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves, most obvious between ages 9-14 months." Seperation anxiety
"An infant's expression of concern (a quiet stare while clinging to a familiar person, or a look of fear) when a stranger appears." Stranger wariness
"Sense of onseself in relation to others. Emerges from family interactions and is shaped by culture." Social awareness
What 6 emotions require social awareness? 1.Shame 2.Disgust 3.Pride 4.Embarassment 5.Empathy 6.Jealousy
"A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and acions are seperate from those of other people." Self-awareness
Newborns experience such basic emotions as ____ and ____ expressed by ____ and ____. distress, contentment, crying, looking relaxed
Older babies feel ____, ____, ____, and _____ (emotions). anger, curiosity, joy, fear
Toddlers express many emotions that indicate awareness of themselves and others, such as ____, ____, and ____. empathy, jealousy, embarassment
"Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. It is measured by the person's typical responses to the environment." Temperament
What are the 3 stages of children developing social bonds? 1.Synchrony 2.Attachment 3.Social referencing
"A coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchangeof responses between a caregiver and an infant." Synchrony
"An experimental practice in which and adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant." Still-face technique
"A bond that an infant forms with a caregiver; a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time." Attachment
What are the 4 patterns of infant attachment? 1.Insecure-avoidant 2.Secure 3.Insecure resistant/ambivalent 4.Disorganized
"A relationship in which and infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver (type of attachment)." Secure attachment
"A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's response, departure, or return." Insecure-avoidant attachment
"A pattern of attachment in which an infant's anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at the separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion." Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment
"A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departue and return." Disorganized attachment
"A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by invoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar room." Strange situation
Secure attachment is more likely if ... (5) 1.Parent is sensitive & responsive 2.High in synchrony 3.The infant's temperament is "easy" 4.The parents are not stressed about income, other children, or their marriage 5.Parents have a working model of secure attachment (from own parents)
"The acquisition of behaviour patterns by observing the behaviour of others." Social learning
"In cognitive theory>set of assumptions the individal uses to organize perceptions & experiences. Ex: a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be suprised by an incident that suggests this ____ _____ of human behaviour was erroneous. Working model
"Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching." Prxoimal parenting
"Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching." Distal parenting
"Literally, "other-care"; the care of children by people other than the biological parents." Allocare
"Child care that indcludes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it." Family daycare
What are the 5 essential characteristics of high-quality daycare? 1.Adequate attention to each infant 2.Encouragement of language and sensorimotor development 3.Attention to health and safety 4.Professional caregivers 5.Warm and responsive caregivers
"Child care that occurs in a place specially designed, where several paid adults care for many children. Usually, the children are grouped by age, the daycare centre is licenses, and providers are trained and certified in child development." centre daycare
Two emotions, ____ and ____, appear as soon as an infant is born. contentment, distress
Fear of something specific, including fear of ____ and of ____, appears toward the end of the first year. strangers, separation
In the second year, ____ ____ produces more selective fear, anger, and joy. As infants becoming increasingly _____, emotions emerge that encourage an interface between the self and others- specifically ___, ___, ____, ____, ____, and ____. self awareness, self-aware, pride, shame, empathy, jealousy, embarassment, disgust
____ impedes early brain and emotional development. Some infants are paarticularly vulnerable to the effects of early mistreatment. Stress
_____ is a set of genetic traits whose expression is influenced by the context. Inborn ____ is linke to later personality, although plasticity is also evident. Temperament, temperament
Sometimes by 2 months, and clearly by 6 months, inants become more responsive and social, and _____ begins. Infants are disturbed by a ___ ___ because they expect and need social iteraction. synchrony, still face
What are the 4 types of attachment? 1.Secure 2.insecure-resistant/ambivalent 3.insecure-avoidant/indifeferent 4.Disorganized
As they play, toddlers engage in ___ ____, looking to other people's facial expressions and body languag to detect what is safe, frightening, or fun. Social referencing
According to all major thoeries, ___ ____ is especially influential in the first 2 years. caregiver behaviour
Created by: jarnol33
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