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C- Operant Therapies

Focuses on behaviors which operate or act upon the environment

Operant Therapies: Focuses on behaviors which operate or act upon the environment with the goal of obtaining some response. Operant conditioning relies on the learner to actively participate in the learning process.
Positive Reinforcement: Increases occurrence of behavior by positively reinforcing it. For instance, giving a child food after he cries.
Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations to the desired response. For instance, giving students more praise the closer they get to the right answer.
Token Economy: Establishing an environment in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens, which are later traded for a desired item. (Think of Boys Town – Saturday Night Trade-in for points)
Time-Out: A technique of decreasing maladaptive behavior by removing access to various forms of reinforcement. (Time-out = decrease behavior. Extinction = Eliminate behavior.)
Extinction: Removing all reinforcement for a specific behavior so that the behavior will cease.
Premack Principle: More probable behaviors can be used to reinforce less probable behaviors. Students will be more motivated to perform a particular activity if they know that they will be able to partake of a more desirable activity as a consequence. Vegatables = Ice Cream
Contingency Contracts: Written formal agreement that clearly defines the behaviors to be modified and the consequences following performance.
Self-Control Procedures: A variety of techniques which the client administers themselves. Commonly used to increase positive behaviors that occur infrequently and to decrease self-injurious behaviors.
Operant TAG: Personally and Actively Changing Behavior by Reinforcement
Created by: minyambou
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