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231 Social Psych

Chapter 1

Social psychology The scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another.
What are the 4 aspects of social thinking? 1.How we perceive ourselvves and others 2.What we believe 3.Judgements we make 4.Our attitudes
Whata re the 4 aspects of social influence? 1.Culture and biology 2.Pressures to conform 3.Persuasion 4.Groups of people
What are 4 aspects of social relations? 1.Helping 2.Aggression 3.Attraction and intimacy 4.Prejudice
What is the difference between social psychology and sociology? Sociology: The study of people in groups and societies. Social psychology: Individuals, often studied through experimentation.
When asking ourselves "how much of the social world is just in our heads?" what 2 factors should we consider (2)? Objectivity and perspective (how we approach and view situations)
What 3 questions arise from the statement "we construct our social reality"? 1.Do we have an optimistic outlook? 2.Do we see ourselves as in control of things? 3.Do we view ourselves as relatively superior or inferior?
"Do we have an optimistic outlook?", "do we see ourselves as in control of things?", "do we view ourselves as superior or inferior?". These questions all relate to what statement? We construct our social reality
What are the 6 major themes of social psychology? 1.We construct our social reality 2.Our social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilous 3.Social influences shape behaviour 4.Dispositions shape behaviour 5.Social behaviour is also biological behaviour 6.Relating to others is a basic need
In what way are social intuitions powerful? We know more than we know we know
In what 3 ways are social intuitions perilous? 1.Misperceiving 2.Misread our own minds 3.Trust our memories more than we should
What 2 statements are true of social thinking? 1.We construct our own reality 2.Social intuitions are often powerful, sometimes perilous
What 2 statements are true of social influences? 1.Social influences shape behaviour 2.Dispositions shape behaviour (nature and nurture)
What 2 statements are true of social relations? 1.Social behaviour is also bioloigcal behaviour 2.Relating to others is a basic need
How do "social influences shape our behaviour"? We adapt to out social context; our behaviour is shaped by external forces (culture, ehtnicity, politics, where you live).
Explain "personal attitudes and dispositions shape our behaviour". Our inner attitude affect out behaviour. Personality desipositions (character/nature) affect our behaviour.
Explain "social behaviour is biologically rooted". Nature and nurture together form who we are. Biology and experience form who we are. Ancestors needed to survive and reproduce.
Social neuroscience An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviours.
We reflect the interplay of what 3 influences? 1.biological 2.psychological 3.social
Explain 2 factors of "relating to others is a basic need". 1.Relationships with others is a source of stress and pain, as well as joy and comfort. 2.Our relationships with others form the basis of our self-esteem
What are 4 obious ways in which values enter social psychology. 1.Our choice of research topics 2.Values differ across time (social psychology reflects hisotry:feminist movement 1970s> research on gender & feminism) 3.Values differ across cultures 4.Values influence types of people attracted to various disciplines
Objective (of a person or their judgement) not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts.
Culture The enduring behaviours, ideas, traditions, products, and institutions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Social representations Socially shared beliefs; widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world.
ur perceptions guide our ____. interpretations
Explain the "subjective aspects of science". Science is not purely objective: scientists interpret nature, using their own mental categories.
In what 3 ways do psychologists' own values play an important part in the thoeires and judegments they support? 1.Forming concepts 2.Labelling 3.Naturalistic fallacy
Explain forming concepts (as hidden vlaues in psychological concepts). Psychologists' hidden values; for example, high self-esteem or defensiveness?
Explain "labelling" (as hidden values in psychological concepts). Social-psychological language; forex ample, hijab = oppression of women or expression of religious faith? Depends on your interpretation of islamic faith.
Explain "naturalistic fallacy" (as a hidden value in psychological concepts). What "is" and what "ought to be" > if most people don't do it, that doesn't make it wrong. if most people do it, that doesn't make it right.
Naturalistic fallacy The error of defining what is good in terms of what is observable: for example, what's typical is normal, what's normal is good.
Social psychology faces which 2 contradictory criticisms? 1.It is trivial because it documents the obvious 2.It is dangerous because its findings could be used to manipulate people.
Hindsight bias The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out; also known as the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon".
"Common sense can often be wrong, and is usually right after the fact" is an description of _____. hindsight bias
Theory An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.
Facts vs theories Facts: agreed upon statemens we observe. Theories: ideas that summarize and explain facts.
Hypotheses Testable propositions that describe relationships that may exist between events.
Name 3 purposes of hypotheses. 1.Allow us to test the theory on which they are based 2.Predictions give direction to research 3.The predictive feature of good theories can also make them practical
Operationalization Translating variables that are described at the theoretical level into the specific variables that we are going to observe (when testing our theories with specific hypotheses) Ex: crowd= 20 strangers together in a relatively small room .
A good theory must be ____ and ____. valid, reliable
What does a good theory accomplish (2)? 1.It effectively summarizes many observations 2.It makes clear predictions that we can use to do the following: confirm or modify the theory, generate new exploration, and suggest practical applications
Name 2 locations where social-psychological research takes place. 1.Laboratories (a controlled situation) 2.Field research (everyday situations)
Name 2 methods of social-psychological research. 1.Correlational research 2.Experimental research
What is an advantage of correlational research? It tends to occur in real-world settings in which we can examine factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, etc.
What is a disadvantage of correlational research? Ambiguity of results
Field research Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.
Correlational research The study of the naturally occuring relationships among variables.
Experimental research Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant).
Correlation vs causation Correlational research allows us to predict, but it cannot tell us whether changing one variable will cause changes in another. X > Y. Y > X. X < Z > Y
Coefficient "r" The degree of relationship between two factors: from -1.0 (as one factor score goes up the other goes down), through 0, to +1.0 (the two factors' scores rise and fall together).
Random sample Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
Name 4 potentially biasing influences when evalutating surveys. 1.Unrepresentative samples 2.Order of the questions 3.Response bias and social desirability 4.Wording of the questions
Social desirability The tendency for people to say what they want others to hear or what they want to believe about themselves.
Independent variables Experimental factors that a researcher manipulates.
Dependent variables The variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manioulations of the independed variable.
Random assignment The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
Advantage and disadvantage of correlational research. Advantage: Often uses real-world settings. Disadvantage: Causation often ambiguous
Advantage and disadvantage of experimental research. Advantage: Can explore cause and effect by controlling variables and by random assignment. Disadvantage: Some important variables cannot be studied with experiments (unethical - ex: effect of alcoholic parents on a child)
Random assignment vs random sampling Random assignment helps us infer cause and effect. Random sampling helps us generalize a population.
Observational research methods Where individuals are observed in natural settings, often without awareness, in order to provide the opportunity for objective analysis of behaviour.
Mundane realism Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations (substandard, not great).
Experimental realism Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
Demand characteristics Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behaviour is expected (do not want this-behaviour will not be genuine).
Name 5 ethical principles. 1.Tell participants enough about experiment to enable informed consent 2.Be truthful Use deception only if necessary & justified 3.Protect people from harm & significant discomfort 4.Confidentiality 5. Debrief (except when feedback it distressing)
Informed consent An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
What is social psychology? The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
What are the 6 major themes of social psychology? 1.We cosntruct our social reality 2.Personal attitudes are often powerful but sometimes perilous 3.Personal attitudes &dispositions shape behaviour 4.Social behaviour is biologically rooted 5.Relating to others: basic need 6.Applicable in everyday life
In what 2 ovious ways do social psychologists' values penetrate their work? 1.Their choice of research topics 2.The types of people who are attracted to various fields of study
Social psychologsts organize their ideas and findings into ____. theories
_______ studies, sometimes conducted with systematic survey methofs, discern the relationship between variables, such as between the amount of education and amount of income, Correlational
Social-psychological research is either _____ or _____. correlational, experimental
Knowing that two things are natually related (correlational research) is valuable information, but it is not a reliable indicator of what 2 factors? 1. Cause-effect relationships 2.Presence of 3rd variable
Created by: jarnol33