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# 201 RMIP

### Chapter 5

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Variable | Aspect of a testing condition that can change or take on different characteristics with different conditions. |

Variables are _____, whereas theoretical concepts are _______. | tangible, intangible |

Give 5 examples of untangible theoretical concepts. | 1.hunger 2.love 3.motivation 4.anxiety |

Dependent variable | A measure of the subject's behaviour that reflects the independent variable's effects. |

Frequency | The number of times that a behaviour is performed (if measuring running, could be the # of times foot hits the ground) |

Rate | The number of times that a behaviour is performed relative to time (ratio of frequency to time (if measuring running, could measure mph)) |

Duration | The amount of time that a behaviour lasts (if measuring running, length of time someone goes running for). |

Latency | The amount of time between an instruction and when the behaviour is actually performed. |

Topography | The style or shape of the behaviour (if measuring running, look at the way she runs; stride length). |

Force | The intensity or strength of a behaviour (if measuring running, the intensity at which feet hit the ground). |

Locus | Where the behaviour occurs in the environment (type of place where he/she is running; track, street, or trail) |

What are 7 types of measurements that are dependent variables? | 1. Frequency 2. Rate 3. Duration 4.Latency 5.Topography 6.Force 7.Lotus |

Independent variable | The condition manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its effect on behaviour (ex: effect of music on running. music=IV, running=DP) |

Levels | The different values of an independent variable. Must have at least 2, otherwise it is not a variable. |

Variables of interest | A variable for which its role in the cause and effect of an observed relationship is not clear. |

Subject variables | A difference between subjects that cannot be controlled but can only be selected (IQ, age, sex, poverty) |

What are 4 examples of subject variables? | 1. IQ 2.Sex 3.Age 4.Poverty |

Confounded variable | One whose effect cannot be seperated from the supposed independent variable |

Quantitative variable | One that varies in amount |

Categorical variable | One that varies in kind |

What are 2 examples of quantitative variables? | 1.speed 2.light |

What are 2 examples of categorical variables? | 1.college major 2.gender |

Continuous variables | One that falls along a continuum and is not limited to a certain number of values |

Give an example of continuous variables associated with bar pressing. | Latency, duration, force of bar pressing can be measured with any desired precision, depending on measuring instrument. |

Discrete variable | One that falls into seperate bins with no intermediate values possible. |

Give 3 examples of a discrete variable. | Number of marriages contracted, murders committed, books written |

Discrete variables and continuous variabes are subtypes of ________ variables. | Quantitative variables |

What are 2 types of quantitative variables? | Continous variables and discrete variables |

Real limits | The interval defined by the number plus or minus half the distance to the next number. |

Apparent limits | The point indicated by a number (ex: 1, 2, or some other whole number) |

Continous variables are measured in what 2 ways? | Through real limits and apparent limits (for 1: 0.5 to 1.5, for 2: 1.5 to 2.5, so on.) |

Measurement | The process of assigning numbers to events or objects according to rules that permit important properties of the objects or events to be represented by properties of the number system. |

What are the 4 types of measurement scales? | 1.nominal 2.ordinal 3.interval 4.ratio |

Nominal scales | A measure that simply divides objects or events into categories according to their similarities or differences. |

Ordinal scales | A measure that both assigns objects or events a name and arranges them in order of their magnitude. |

Interval scales | A measure in which the differences between numbers are meaningful; includes both nominal and ordinal information |

Ratio scales | A measure having a meaningful zero point as well as all of the nominal, ordinal, and interval properties. |

Descrive the ratio scale in terms of someone rankiing their preference of vegetables | Suppose 0 is neutral, don't like or dislike. 10 is the amount you like broccoli. If you rate a vegetable as -10, you dislike the vegetable as much as you like broccoli. If you like something twice as much as broccoli, you would rank it at 20. |

What information does the nominal scale give you? | Only about whether two events are the same or are different. |

What information does the ordinal scale give you? | Same as the nominal scale, PLUS ranking on some variable. |

What information does the interval scale give you? | Same as the nominal and ordinal scale, PLUS allows you to make quantitative statements about the magnitude of the differences between events/objects. |

What information does the ratio scale give you? | Same as the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales, PLUS conveys information about ratios of magnitudes and meaningul zero point (half as much, triple as much, neutral, etc.). |

From least (1) to most (4) informative, rank the 4 measurement scales. | 1. nominal 2.ordinal 3.interval 4.ratio |

For a measurement to be of any use in science, it must have what 2 components? | 1Reliability and Validity |

Reliability | The property of consistency of a measurement that gives the same result on different occasions. |

Validity | (of a measurement) The property of a measurement that tests what it is supposed to test. |

Error variance (random error) | Variability in the dependent variable that is not associated with the independent variable. |

What are the 4 main types of validity of measurements? | 1.Construct validity 2.Face validity 3.Content Validity 4.Criterion validity |

Construct validity (of a test) | A test that the measurements actually measure the constructs they are designed to measure, but no others. |

Face validity | Idea that a test should appear superficially to test what it is supposed to test. |

Content validity | Idea that a test should sample the range of behaviour represented by the theoretical concept being tested |

Give an example of a test with good content validity vs bad content validity | Good: Intelligence test that measures general knowledge, verbal ability, spatial ability, quantitative skills, and more. Bad: Intelligence test that only measures general knowledge. |

Criterion validity | Idea that a test should correlate with other measures of the same theoretical construct |

Concurrent validity (subtype of criterion validity) example | The criterion of an intelligence test is whether it correlates with how well a child is doing in school at the time the test is given. |

Predictive validity (subtype of criterion validity) example | Criterion of an intelligence test is how well the test can predict some future performance of the child, such as graduation from college. |

What are the 2 basic types of measurement error: | systematic (or constant) error and random error |

Systematic error | Measurement error that is associated with consistent bias. It is not desirable, but may not be such a serious problem if the error is the same for the entire study - that is, all groups or conditions of the study are equally affected. |

Why is random error always a serious problem? | Because it can reduce the precision with which you assess the effects of the independent variable. It is a threat to the reliability of measurement. |

Whata re 2 types of reliability of measure? | test-retest reability and internal consistency |

Test-retest reliability | The degree to which the same test score would be obtained on another occasion. |

Internal consistency | The degree to which the various items on a test are measures of the same thing. |

An ____ ____ is one that is believed to cause some change in the value of the dependent variale. | independent variable |

The different values of an independent variable are called the ___ of the variable. | levels |

A _____ variable is an independent variable that the researcher does not manipulate, but measures instead (cannot be controlled, only selected) | subject |

A _____ variable is one that varies with the independent variable. | confounded |

_____ variables vary in amount, whereas _____ variables differ in kind | quantitative, categorical |

A _____ variable is one that is not limited to a certain number of values. | continuous |

A _____ variable is one that falls into a certain number of distinct bins. | discrete |

The ____ ____ of a number are the point indicated by the number itself; the ___ ____ are the interval defined by the number plus or minus half the difference to the next numbers. | apparent limits, real limits |

Four scales of measurement are distinguished according to the rules by which numbers are assigned to objects or events: ___, ___, ___, and ___. | nominal scales, ordinal scales, interval scales, ratio scales |

A(n)____ scale is on that classifies objects or events into categories. Objects or events of the same kind get the same number and different objects or events get different numbers. | nominal |

A(n) ___ scale is one that ranks objects or events in order of their magnitude. The position of the numbers on the scale depend must represent the rank order of the psychological attributes of the objects or events. | ordinal |

A(n) ____ scale is one in which the differences between the numbers on the scale are meaningful. Equal differences betqeen the numbers on the scale must represent equal differences between the event or objects. | interval |

A(n) ___ scale is one that has a meaningful zero point as well as meaningful differences between the numbers on the scale. | ratio |

We are able to gain more from the data as we progress from ____ to ____ to ____ to ____ scales. | nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio |

Measurements must be both ____ and ____ | reliable, valid |

4 types of validity of measurements are commonly recognized: ____, ____, ____, and ____. | construct validity, face validity, content validity, criterion validity |

Systematic error is caused by what? | Measurement bias |