Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

201 RMIP

Chapter 1

What are 2 broad methods to learn about behaviour? 1. Empirical methods 2. Non-empirical methods
Empirical based on experience
What are 2 non-empirical methods of learning about behaviour? 1. Authority 2. Logic
What are 2 empirical methods of leaning about behaviour? 1. Intuition 2. Science
Give 5 exmaples of authority (method of learning about behaviour) 1. Government 2. News media 3. Books 4. Parents 5. Professors
What is the downfall of authority as a method of learning about behaviour? Authorities are often wrong
Authority Based on someone else's knowledge
Logic Based on deductive or inductive reasoning
Give an example of logical reasoning, and why it could be wrong. If A then B. B therefore A. If it rains, there will be no baseball game. There is no baseball game, therefore it is rains. Logical fallacy. Also derives from the assumption that it is raining.
Why is logical as a method of learning about behaviour faulty? Logic can tell you that a statement is false because it draws an improper conclusion. But a stataement can be logically valid and still not be true because it assumes something to be the case that is not.
There is no substitute for ______ evidence empirical
Intuition Spontaneous perception or judgement not based on reasoned mental steps. (instinctive process).
Is intuition an empirical method or nonempirical method of learning about behaviour? Empirical
Is logic an empirical method or nonempirical method of learning about behaviour? nonempirical
Is authority an empirical method or nonempirical method of learning about behaviour? nonempirical
Is science an empirical method or nonempirical method of learning about behaviour? empirical
_______ is a kind of intuition Common sense
Common sense Paractical intelligence shared by a large group of people
What are the 2 basic limitations of common sense as a way of learning about behaviour? 1. Standards of c.s. differ from time to time and from place to place according to the attitudes and experiences of the culture 2. The only criterion for judging the truth of a belief or practice is whether it works - It can not predict new knowledge
Counterintuitive Something that goes against common sense
Science A way of obtaining knowledge by means of objective observation
What are the 7 major characteristics of science? Science is... 1. empirical 2. objective 3. self-correcting 4. progressive 5. tentative 6. parsimonious 7. concerned with theory
Explain how science is empirical. Scientific attitude relies on experience (empirical) more than on authority, common sense, or even logic. Empiricism is a characteristic of science, but not all empirical ways of knowing are scientific (ex:intuitive method is empirical but not scientific)
Explain how science is objective. Science deals with phenomena that are available to anyone (objective). Great care is taken to specify the exact conditions under which observations are made so that other scientists can repeat the observations to try to obtain the same results.
Objective observation (as a characteristic of science) Objective observations are those made in such a way that any person having normal perception and being in the same place at the same time would arrive at the same observation.
Explain how science is self-correcting. New evidence is constantly being discovered that contradicts previous knowledge; science is characterized by a willingness to let new evidence correct previous beliefs.
Explain how science is progressive. Because science is empirical and self-correcting, it follows that it is also progressive; science moves forward toward truth, adding more and more information to what was previously known.
Explain how science is tentative. Because science is tentative, the opportunity to be self-correcting is also available; science never claims to have the whole truth on any question because new information may make current knowledge obsolete at any time.
Parsimony Using the simplest possible explanation
Explain how science is parsimonious. (Think Occam's razor) The principle of parsimony holds that we should use the simplest explanation possible to account for a given phenomenon.
Explain how science is concerned with theory. The major concern of science is the development of a theory of how something works.
What are 5 assumptions of science? 1. The reality of the world 2. Rationality 3. Regularity 4. Discoverability 5. Causality
Realism The philosophy that objects perceived have an existence outside the mind.
Explain the reality of the world as an assumption of science. Layperson's world : people who are lazy or hardworking, good or evil. Scientist's world: Consists of people who are influenced by stimuli, cognitions, and emotions. Both assume there is only one reality, but they differ as to what that reality is.
Rationality A view that reasoning is the basis for solving problems.
Explain rationality as an assumption of science. Scientists believe the world is understandable by way of logical thinking. If the world were irrational (if it oculd not be understood by using principles of logic) then there would be no point in trying to understand it by any means.
Regularity A belief that phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform with universal laws.
Explain regularity as an assumption of science. Science assumes that nothing about human behavior falls outside the laws of nature, whenever or wherever the behavior occurs. We assume that the world follows the same laws at all times and places.
Discoverability The belief that it is possible to learn solutions to questions posed.
Explain discoverability as an assumption of science. The basic belief in discoverability is one of the working assumptions of science that motivates people to make the effort necessary to carry on experimental work for large parts of their lifetimes.
Determinism The doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes.
What are the 3 criterio for establishing a cause-and-effect relationship? 1. Temporal precedence 2. Covariation of cause and effect (or probabilistic co-variation) 3. elimination of alternative explanations
Temporal precedence Something that occurs prior to another thing. The cause must come before the effect.
Co-variation of cause and effect When the cause if introduced, the effect occurs (when the cause is present, the effect happens).
Probabilistic co-variation Statistical association of a cause with an effect (ex: smoking causes lung cancer, but not everyone who smokes gets lung cancer).
What are the 2 main goals of science (through understanding the world) 1. discovering regularities 2. developing theories
The goal of discovering regularities can be considered in what 3 ways? 1. The description of behaviour 2. the discovery of lawful relationships among aspects of behaviour 3. the search for causes
Explain the description of behaviour as a mean of discovering regularities (goal of science). Description of phenomena is crucially important to a science because it defines the subject matter for which laws are sought and theories are developed. We must define events and entities (stimuli & responses, cognitions & beliefs, neuroses & psychoses.)
Explain the discovering of laws as a mean of discovering regularities (goal of science). As the describing of behaviour progresses, various regularities appear among behavioural events. These regularities form laws of behaviour. Any time a regular association between 2 variables exist, you have a law.
Law A statement that certain events are regularly associated with each other in an orderly way.
Give an example of disovering a law as a mean of discovering regularities (goal of science) When a cat fights it arches its back and hisses. Although the hissing doesn't cause the cat to fight (not a cause-effect relationship) > still correlated with fighting. These events are regularly associated together when cats fight > considered a law.
Explain the search for cause as a mean of discovering irregulrities (goal of science) The search for causes is extremely important. Scientists search for the causes of the events that we observe.
What are 4 common obstacles or difficulties with finding causes? 1.We often overlook the real cause 2. Sometimes events are just coincidences 3. Sometimes the real cause is another vent that is correlated with the suspected cause 4. Causes cannot happen after their effects
Theory A statement or set of statements explaining one or more laws, usually including one indirect concept needed to explain the relationship.
Falsifiability The property of a good theory that it is capable of disproof
Explain why theories must be falsibiable A theory of what aliens like to eat is not a scientific theory because we cannot test it. Someday if we actually see aliens then it would be a scientific theory because we could test it. A theory must not only be testable but also be falsifiable.
What are the 3 crucial roles that theories play in the development of science? 1.Organizing knowledge and explaining laws 2. Predicting new laws 3. Guiding research
Hypothesis A statement assumed to be true for the purpose of testing its validity. Put in the form of an if'then statement: If A is true, B should follow. The statement must be one that is either true or false.
Operationism A view that scientific concepts must be defined in terms of observable operations (that any person can observe or perform); scientific concepts are defined according to the operations by which they are measured.
Operational definition A statement of the precise meaning of a procedure or concept within an experiment.
Converging operations Using different operational definitions to arrive at the meaning of a concept (ex: use different ways of learning)
Paradigm A set of laws, theories, methods, and applications that form a scientific research tradition; for example, Pavlovian conditioning
What are the 4 ways of knowing about behaviour? 1. Authority 2. Logic 3. Intuition 4.Science
____ is limited in its usefulness to science because it changes from time to time and from place to place, and cannot predict new knowledge. Common sense
Science is a way of knowing based on _____ observations. Objective
Science has the following characteristics: it is ______, ______, _____, _____, _____, _____, and ______. empirical, objective, self-correcting, progressive, tentative, parsimonious, concerned with theory.
What are science's 5 major working assumptions? 1. reality 2. rationality 3. regularity of the world 4. discoverability of how the world works 5. the operation of causality
The assumption of _____ means that the world is believed to be understandable via logical thinking. rationality
The assumption of _____ means that the world is believed to follow the same laws in all times and places. regularity
The assumption of ______ means that scientists believe that it is possible to find out how the world works. discoverability
The assumption of ______ means that all events are believed to have causes. Causality
What 3 criterion are critical to establishing a cause-and-affect relationship between 2 events? 1. temporal precedence 2. covariation of cause and effect 3. elimination of alternative explanations
What are 2 goals of science? 1. discovery of regularities 2. development of theories
Discovering regularities includes what 3 processes? 1. Describing behaviour 2. discovering lawful relationships among aspects of behaviour 3. searching for causes
_________ is crucially important because it defines the subject matter for which laws are to be sought and theories developed. Description of behaviours
A ____ is a statement that certain events are regularly associated with one another. Law
A ______ is a set of statements about relationships among variables that includes at least one concept that is not directly observed. theory
_____ and _____ must be capable of being tested empirically. theories, hypotheses
What are 3 main functions of theories in science? 1. organizing knowledge and explaining laws 2. predicting new laws 3. guiding research
A _____ is a statement that is assumed to be true for the purpose of testing its validity. hypothesis
_______ is the doctrine that scientific concepts must be tied to observable operations. operationism
Progress in science often involves a major shift in theories and assumptions, known as a ________ shift, rather than a steady accumulation of knowledge. Paradigm
What are the 5 characteristics of a good operational definition? 1.Empirical 2.Quantitative 3.Reliable 4.Valid 5.Sensitive
Created by: jarnol33
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards