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Cognition + Language


algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics
availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common
babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited
cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
intuition an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combined them to communicate meaning
linguistic determinism whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about age one to two, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
overconfidence the tendency to become more confident than correct -- to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
phoneme in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
prototype a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning for morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- "go car"-- using mostly nouns and verbs
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Created by: brooklynerlee
Popular Psychology sets




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