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Chp. 13

Psychopharmacology: Nicotine & Caffeine

Nicotine Psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, e-cigarettes, and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) vape pens and e-hookahs
Nicotiana Tabacum (Large-lead Variety) Principal source of present-day tobacco, originated in South America, where it was domesticated by native peoples more than 5000 years ago.
Niotiana Rustica (Small-leaf Variety) Native to eastern North America and the islands of the West Indies.
Nicotiana Tabacum derived from both Nicot's surname and tabaco, the term for "tobacco" in both Spanish & Portuguese.
Hon Lik A Chinese pharmacist is considered to be the inventor of the modern-e-cigarette
How many mg of nicotine is in a cigarette? The typical tobacco cigarette contains between 6 and 11mg of nicotine, although no more than 1 to 3mg actually reaches the bloodstream of the smoker.
What is the normal temperature at the burning tip of a cigarette? Nicotine in the tobacco is vaporized by the 800C temperature.
Tar a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of which some are known to be carcinogenic.
Tar Is an important contributor to the taste and smell of cigarette smoke, and along with nicotine, these sensory qualities contribute significantly to the reinforcing effects of smoking.
How many puffs does a smoker consume? A typical smoker takes about 10 to 15 total puffs on a cigarette at intervals of approx. 30 to 60 seconds.
Cotinine About 70% to 80% of nicotine in the body is transformed into the principal metabolic
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) Specific liver enzyme
Half- life of nicotine About 2 hours, although this value can vary with individual differences in metabolism rate.
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are ionotropic receptors that conduct Na ions across the cell membrane and produce a rapid excitatory response by the postsynaptic cell.
NAchrs Found in many parts of the brain, including cerebral cortex, thalamus, straitum, hippocampus, and monoamine-containing nuclei such as the substantianigra, ventral tegmental area (VTA), locus coreuleus, and raphe nuclei
Created by: Ciera9105



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