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Hazmat OPS

Introduction to Hazardous Materials

Acute exposure Single occurance
Chronic exposure Long-term, reoccuring
Accute health effects Short term effects that appear within hours or days such as vomiting or diarrhea.
Chronic health effects Long-term effects that may take years to appear, such as cancer.
The 3 states of matter Gas, liquid, and solid
Flash Point The minimum temperature at which a liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface. The vapors will flash but not continue to burn.
Fire Point The temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuos burning.
Autoignition Temperature The minimum temperature to which the fuel in air must be heated to initiate self-sustained combustion without initiation from an independent ignition source.
Ignition Temperature The minimum temperature required to initiate or cause self-sustained combustion, independent of the heating or heated element.
Flammamble, Explosive, or Combustible Range The percentage of the gas or vapor concentration in air that will burn or explode if ignited.
Vapor Pressure The pressure produced or exerted by the vapors released by the liquid.
Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
Sublime Change directly from a solid into a gas without going into a liquid state in between
Vapor Density The weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure.
Solubility in Water The percentage of material that will dissolve in water at an ambient temperature
Miscible Two liquids that dissolve into each other in any proportion
Immiscible Two materials that do not readily dissolve into each other.
Specific Gravity The ratio of the density (heaviness) of a material to the density of some standard material at standard conditions of pressure and temperature.
Reactivity Its relative ability to undergo a chemical reaction with another material
Strong Oxidizers Materials that encourage a strong reaction (by readily accepting electrons) from reducing agents (fuel).
Polymerization A chemical reaction in which a catalyst causes simple molecules to combine to form long chain molecules
Inhibitors Materials that are added to products that easily polymerize in order to control or prevent an undesired reaction
Ionizing Radiation Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms.
Local Toxic Effect A chemical injury at the site of contact (typically the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth or respiratory tract).
Systemic Effects A toxic chemical absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed to other parts of the body.
Nephrotoxic Agents Agents that affect the kidneys.
Hematotoxic Agents Agents that affect the blood.
Neurotoxic Agents Agents that affect the nervous system.
Hepatotoxic Agents Agents that affect the liver.
Lethal Dose (LD) Minimum amount of solid or liquid that when ingested, absorbed, or injected through the skin will cause death.
Median Lethal Dose (LD50) A single dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of animals when administered by the oral route
Lethal Dose Low (LDLO or LDL) Lowest administered dose of a material capable of killing a specified test species.
Irritants Toxins that cause temporary but sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin, or respiratory system.
Convulsants Toxic materials that can cause convulsions (involuntary muscle contractions).
Corrosives Chemicals that destroy or burn living tissues and have destructive effects (cause corrosion, particularly to metals).
Acid Any chemical that ionozes (breaks down) to yeild hydrogen ions in water. Has pH level values of 0-6.
Base (alkalis) Water-soluble compound that breaks apart in water to form a negatively charged hydroxide ion. Have pH values from 8-14.
Carcinogens Cancer-causing agents
Mutagens Substances or agents that are capable of altering the genetic material in a living cell; in other words, they effect DNA
Teratogens Substances or agents that are capable of causing developmental abnormalities in utero.
Allergens Substances that cause allergic reactions in people or animals
Sensitizers Chemicals that cause a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposure to the chemical
Etiological The exposure to a micro-organism or its toxin that may result in a sever, disabling disease.
Created by: firechic3630
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