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Life Development

Ch 3 (pages 93-101, 117-124)

TermDefinition
What are 4 descriptive characteristics of development? 1. multidirectional 2. multicontextual 3. multicultural 4. plastic
Norm An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population.
What 2 simple ways can disturb genetic growth patterns in infants? overfeeding and underfeeding
How many grams a day does a newborn gain in weight for the first few months? 30 grams/day
How do you calculate postnatal brain growth in a newborn? measure the circumference of the head
Head-sparing A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition.
Neurons One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system. especially in the brain.
Cortex The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing involve the cortex.
Prefrontal cortex The area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in antcipation, planning, and impulse control. It is the final part of the brain to mature.
What is particular about the prefrontal cortex in infants? It is virtually inactive in the first months of infancy, and gradually becomes more efficient in childhood and adolescence.
Axon A fibre that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.
Dendrites A fibre that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses from ovther neurons via their axons.
Each neuron has how many axons and dendrites? A single axon, numerous dendrites
Synpases The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons.
Neurotransmitters A brain chemical that carries infromation from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron.
What is the major reason that the brain triples in weight from birth to age 2? Dendrite growth
Why is prenatal brain development limited in humans? Because the human pelvis is relatively small and the baby's head must be relatively small as well to make birth possible - therefore there is an acceleration of growth only after birth.
Transient exuberance The great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant's brain during the first two years of life (exuberant > rapid, transient > some of it is temporary).
Pruning When applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die (to make room for more useful ones).
Give 2 examples of experiences that make expansion and pruning happen in infant's brains. 1. noticing musical rythms 2. understanding emotions
Why does the natural loss of dendrites increase brain power? Too densely packed neurons (like in chimpanzees) can make you less intelligent, because the brain needs more space for dendrite formation. Some space between neurons is necessary.
Define what causes autism in the brain. Rapid brain growth, which suggests too little pruning. Makes thinking difficult.
What are the 2 types of categorization schemes present in the brain (Greenough and colleagues)? 1. experience-expectant 2. experience-dependent
Experience-expectant Information storage in the brain, which includes environmental information that is common to all people (ex: seeing contrast, borders, patterns, etc.)
Experience-dependent Information storage in the brain, which stores important and specific information, unique to the individual (ex: sources of food)
Plasticity The ability to be modified or changed.
Some parts of the brain development at the prenatal stage is automatic due to ______. genetically predetermined pathways
What is a major advantage of the brain development's plasticity? Its ability to compensate or take over the functions of certain areas that may have been damaged by disease or accident.
Those who learn two languages during their early years have a larger _________, which may assist with ______ and ______. left brain, language acquisition, fluency
What is an advantage of exposing an infant to two languages during the first 7-8 months? They are more likely to speak idiomatically - that is, with no discernable accent.
Fusiform face area A part of the brain that is astonishingly adept at face recognition/. Primed among newborns, although it has yet to reflect experience: ex: newborns will stare at monkey faces as well as human ones.
Name 3 simple and efficient ways of promoting healthy development for newborns. 1. provide a stiumlating environment
What is considered a stimulating enviroment for a newborn? Talking and singing to the baby, playing, massaging, and engaging in other sensory activities
Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is foreceully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections
Self-righting The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; literally, to return to sitting or standing upright after being tipped over. People of all ages have self-righting impulses, for emotional as well as physical imbalance.
Describe a scenario in which social environment has a direct effect on baby's sleep pattern. If parents respond to pre-dawn cries with food and play, the baby will wake up early every morning.
What is the average sleeping pattern of newborns? With large fluctuation between maturity and different babies, the average is 15-17 hours of sleep a day, divided in 1-3 hour segments.
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind lcosed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
Sensorimotor intelligence Piaget's term for the way infants think - by using their senses and motor skills - during the first period of cognitive development
What are Piaget's 6 periods of sensorimotor intelligence? 1. simple reflexes 2. primary circular reactions 3. secondary circular reactions 4. coordination of secondary circulary reactions 5. tertiary circular reactions 6. mental representation
Piaget's stage of "simple reflexes" Includes neonatal reflexes that infants use during their first month of life. During this stage, the newborn's motor reflexes evoke certain brain reactions. First stage.
Piaget's stage of "primary circular reactions" Lasts one month to four months. Infants put together two actions or sensations (ex: looking and touching, or listening and touching) to form a habit. Over time, the two seperate actions become one, repeated over and over (ex: sucking).
What do stages 1 and 2 from Piaget's sensorimotor intelligence periods have in common? The infant's focus is primarily on themselves.
What do stages 3 and 4 of Piaget's sensorimotor intelligence periods have in common? Reactions are no longer confined to the infant's body; they are an interaction between the baby and something else in the external world.
Piaget's "secondary circular reactions" infants attempt to produce something exciting; making interesting events last (ex: realizing that rattles make noise, they wave their arms and laugh whwnever someone puts a rattle in their hand)
Piaget's "coordination of secondary circular reactions" Also called "measn to the end" - babies have goals that they try to reach. Begin to show intentionality (often ask for help: fussing, pointing, gesturing, to get what they want). Might assess a paretn's mood and then try to engage.
Object permanence The realization that objects (including people) still exist even if they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard.
"The tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hidden." A-not-B error
"The stage-five toddler (age 12 to 18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial and error in active and creative exploration." Little scientist
"A sequence in which an infant first perceives something done by someone else and then performs the same saction hours or even days later." Deferred imitation
"Cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action." Mirror neurons
"A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output." Information-processing theory
"A perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment." Reminder session
Created by: jarnol33