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umd exam #3

PSYC100H exam #3

genotype inherited genetic information carried by the organim
phenotype actual obsrved characteristics of the individual
developmentalchanges occur in . .. stages or phrases
Jean Piagen studied development of cognitive competence and developed the state theory
children use ___ mental schemas
new phenomena are interpreted ith existing schemas by. . . assimilation
sensory-motor intelligence stage 0-2 yrs, object permanence established by 9 months, A not B effect present
preoperational stage 2-5 yrs, egocentricism, A not B effect disappears, pretend play, can't appreciate conservation of quantity or number
concrete operational stage 7-11 yrs, appreciate conservation of quantity and number
formal operational stage comprehension of abstract and formal relationships emerge ~11yrs. (odd and even n numbers)
Criticisms of Piaget -more sensitive tests for infants can be used based on the habituation procedure-egocentrism in preschoolers may be overstatd-changes in ability need not imply qualitative stage transitions, many processes include memory stages reflect overall functio
Imprinting early social experience may have a permanent effect on behavior
attachment social bond which forms between infants and their caregivers
Harlow's studies= attachment (monkeys)
contact comfort monkeys cling to cloth mother
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth studied. . . attachment in human children
Bowlby and Ainsworth used strange situation- child's tendency to leave the parent's side in an unfarmiliar environment was measurd
Bowlby and Ainsworth found (thru strange situation). . . kids get positive reinforcement from contac and show free floating anxiety when separated. anxiety= separation anxiety
separation anxiety indicates that. . . an attachment has been formed
Renee Spitz studied. . . lack of attachmentin human infans by comparing to foundling home and nursing home
Social learning theory- values are also acquired through modeling and imitation
Kohlberg studied. . . moral reasoning
Preconventional stage sall children based on anticipation of rewards and punishments
conventional stagae moral reasoning based on strict rule following
postconventional stage abstract principles to reach moral decisions, doesn't normally appear until adolescence
Gender identity clear inner sense of being male or fmale
gender role variety of behaviors associated with each gender
Wolffian duct male system
mullerian duct female system
2 male hormones testosterone, nullerian regression hormone
female hormones none
Pseudohermaphroditism -exponse female fetus to male hormones can produce part male external genitalia, rear as females
androgen insensitivity male hormones produced but no receptors develop, females= develop normally, males=no internal genitalia develop, rear as female
ablatio penis adjustment best if reared as males
life span development analyzed in ___ stages 8
0-1.5 trust vs. mistrust
1.5-3 autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3-6 initiative vs. guilt
6yrs-puberty competence vs. inferiority
adolescence identity vs. role confusion
early adulthood intimacy vs. isolation
middle age productivity vs. stagnation
later years integrity vs. despair
Asch's social pressure experiments at least 1/3 and up to 2/3 subjects did not make independent line length judgemens
socially shared reality is- higly salient to msot individuals
Created by: cgulick
Popular Psychology sets




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