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K32 Exam 3

Nutrition (Def) science that studies the relationship of foods to optimal health and performance
If proper nutrition is practiced the foods we eat will... -supply all essential nutrients for tissue function, maintenance, growth and repair -provide enough macronutrients for energy necessary for work and physical activity
Diseases of dietary excess and imbalance are among leading causes of death in the US (T/F?) True
What diseases are linked to bad diets and chronic diseases? Coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes II, osteoporosis
High sodium contributes to... increased blood pressure
Is one has low iron in blood, they will have anemia
Fuel nutrients such as CHO, fats and proteins release their energy... during their breakdown in the cells
Regulatory nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, water... -DO NOT provide energy -act as regulators in all body processess such as: -digestion -muscle contraction, nerve conduction -wound healing -tissue growth
Caloric value of food (fuel nutrients) fat- 9 proteins- 4 carbs- 4 aclohol- 7
Simple carbohydrates are... -often denoted as sugars with little nutritional value -in soda, candy, cakes -2 categories (mono, di_
Monosaccharides (Glucose) -natural sugar in foods -energy source; stored as glycogen (in muscles and liver -excess stored as fat (in adipose tissue)
Monosaccharides (fructose (fruit sugar)) -occurs naturally in fruits, honey - converted to glucose in the body
Monosaccharides (galactose (milk sugar)) -produced in the mammary glands of lactating animals -converted to glucose in the body
disaccharides... -broken down in the body to monosaccharides -3 majors --sucrose --lactose --maltose
complex carbohydrates... -10 or more linked monosaccharide molecules examples include glycogen, starches.
Starches... -Are converted to glucose for energy use -found naturally in grains, seeds, corn, nuts, roots, potatoes, legumes
Dietary fiber... -are plant polysaccharides -can't be digested (no energy)
Sources of d. fib. include... -leaves -skins -roots -seeds -whole grain cereals and breads -fruit -vegetables -legumes
Lack of fiber has been linked to... -cardiovascular disease -cancer -constipation -diverticulus -hemorrhiods -gallbladder disease -obesity
Increasing fiber to 30/g day significantly reduces risk for... heart attacks, colon cancer, breat cancer, diabetes
Fats are the most concentrated source of energy. (T/F?) True (9 calories per gram)
What are the functions of fat? -shock absorbtion -insulation -energy storage -store fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) -cell membrane integrity
Trans fatty acids are... -solidified fat formed by adding hydrogen to mono and polyunsaturated fats to increase shelf life -in margarine,spreads,shortening,nut butters, crackers, cookies, dairy products, meats, processed foods, fast foods -carry a greater health risk than sat f
Omega-3 Fatty acids are.. -polyunsaturated (fish,flaxseed,vegs) -reduces the risk for blood clots, abnormal heart rhythms, hypertension, heart attack, stroke, inflammation -reduce chol -reduce risk for Alzheimers, joint degeneration
The basic structural material of the body Protein
What are the functions of proteins -build and repair tissues -help maintain body fluid balance -serve as a source of energy of carb. supply is insufficient
There are 20 different amino acids, 8-9 of which are essential these must be... consumed in foods
There are 20 different amino acids, 11-12 of which are non-essential these can be... synthesized if food proteins in diet provide enough nitrogen
Complete proteins... ...contain all essential a.a.'s
Incomplete proteins... are missing 1 or more essential a.a.'s
Too much protein in the diet is linked to... heart disease and cancer
The only vitamins that CAN be synthesized are... (A,D and K)
Water soluble vitamins are... (B complex, C)
Minerals are found... In all cells, especially in hard tissues such as bones nails and teeth)
The 4 most commonly mentioned minerals are... -Ca (osteoporosis) -Fe (Anemia) -Na (hypertention)
Water is by far the most important nutrient, what are the roles of water in the body? -Solvent for chem. rXns -maintenance of blood consumption -temperature regulation -digestion/absorption of nutrients -transport of nutrients/hormones -removal of waste products
Daily in take of water should be... ... 35/ml/kg a day
Men have a greater % of total body weight in water due to... a higher amount of muscle mass
Health Consequences of obesity -20% annual mortality rate -2nd leading cause of preventable death -epidemic -critical public health prob. of 21st century
Average weight of American adults between ages 20 and 74 has increased by ____ LBS since 1965 25 LBS
People 30 or more pounds overweight during age 30-49... lose about 7 years of life
people 10-30 LBS overweight... lose about 3 years of life
Severe obesity (BMI > 45) at a young age may cit lifespan by... 20 years
A weight reduction of 5 to 10 percent... can reduce the risk of heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes.
People who have a few extra LBS of weight but who are otherwise healthy and physically active, exercise regularly, and have good diet... may not be at a greater risk for premature mortality.
Extreme leaness has been linked to... -heart damage -gastrointestinal problems -shrinkage of internal organs -muscle wasting -fatigue -damage to nervous system
What % of the US pop. is underweight? 14
What are the components of total daily energy expenditure? RMR- 60-70 % TEF- 5-10 % PA- 15-30 %
What are the effects of aerobic exercise on energy balance? -increased energy expenditure -decreased fat mass -increased lean body mass -increased RMR -decreased %fat
With aerobic exercise, weight loss becomes apparent after... the lean component stabilizes
Within in the hypothalamus, there seems to be an WRM (weight-regulating mechanism) that has a setpoint for regulating... -appetite -fat stored -body weight
If body wt. decreases... setpoint senses chage and then triggers weight regulating mechanisms to increase appetite.
The brain will not be satisfied until the set number of calories and nutrients... have been registered.
Resistive exercise will... offset the typical adult weight gain of 1-2 LBS a year.
Resistive exercise will increase... energy expenditure
When one experiences caloric restriction without any form of exercise... they will be fatter at the same body weight as an end result.
When one experiences caloric restriction with weight exercise... They will be leaner at the same body weight
Resistive exercise by itself in __________ in decreasing weight ineffective
The most effective way of decreasing fat % is by... -Aerobic and resistive exercise in collaboration with moderate caloric restriction
Summary of exercise benefits
Created by: mgarvin9