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Psychology Modules 1

What are Psychology’s Current Perspectives? Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behaviour Genetics, Psychodynamic, Behavioural, Cognitive, Social-Cultural
What is the Nature vs. Nurture Controversy? The longst controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours.
What is psychiatry? A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders.
What are the steps for the Scientific Investigation? Question, find a Literary Review, create a Hypothesis, find a Method, Run the Study, Analyse the Data, and Draw a Conclusion.
What is a case study? A method of research that examines one individual in depth in the hop of revealing things true of us all. Pros: it can reveal information about a group of people by examining a few. Cons: if the individual is atypical, the research is in valid.
What is naturalistic observation? A method of research, it observed and records behaviour in naturally occurring situations without interference. Pros: findings that illuminate thought processes. Cons: social desirability, ethics.
What is a survey? A method of research, it questions a representative from a random sampling. Pros: random sampling. Cons: wording can change the meaning, people can lie.
What is random sampling? A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
What is correlation? A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
What is correlation studies? A method of research that measure the extent to which two factors vary together
What is a population? All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
What is Experimentation? A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors. Pro: can manipulate variables. Con: no single experiment is conclusive.
What is a control group? The group not exposed to the treatment; the normal group.
What is the independent variable? The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who’s effect is being studied.
What is a dependent variable? The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to independent variable.
What is a synapse? The junction between the axon tip of the sending neurone and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neurone.
What happens at a synapse? Meeting point between neurones; it interferes with a brief interruption in the transmission.
What is a sensory neurone? Carries messages from the bodies tissues and sensory receptors inward to the brain and spinal cord. (afferent)
What are motor neurones? Carry instructions from the central nervous system out to the body’s muscles.
What does the autonomic nervous system do? It controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs.
What is the sympathetic nervous system? It arouses and expends energy.
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do? Calms the body down.
What is the endocrine system? The body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream.
What is the primary gland in the endocrine system? The pituitary gland; located in the core of the brain.
What is plasticity? The brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood.
What is aphasia? The loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage
Where do the mean, median, and mode fall in normal distribution? The mid-point.
What is the difference between dominant and recessive genes? DD dd Dd dD : two dominants will show the dominant trait; a dominant and a recessive trait will show dominant trait; two recessives will show recessive.
What is a hypothesis? A proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth.
Created by: the_link_dock