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Psych Chap 1/2

Goals of Psychology
Scientific method
Replicated study
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Experimental group
Control group
Random assignment
Naturalistic observation
Laboratory observation
Case study
Phineas Gage
Correlational Studies
Ethical guidelines
Experimenter bias
Observer bias
Sample bias
Participant bias
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
None scientific studies (psychics, mediums, iridologists, astrologers)
Description, explanation, prediction, control
Empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science
Repetition of a research study, generally with different situations and different subjects to determine if the basic findings of the original study can be applied to other participants and circumstances
Operational definition A statement of the procedures or ways in which the researcher is going to measure behavior or qualities
Variable whose variation does not depend on that of another. Changes what the experiment is studying
Variable whose variation does depend on that of another. What the experiment is studying
The group that gets the independent variable
The group that gets the placebo or normal scenario
Best way to gain test subjects for experiment
Research method that involves observing subjects in their natural environment
Research method that takes place in an environment controlled by the researchers and will make the test as similar to a real life situation as possible
A process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time
American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an incident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain’s frontal lobe
Data collection tool used to gather information about individuals. Used in psychology research to collect self-report data from study participants
Type of research used as a preliminary way to gather info about a topic or in situations where performing and experiment is not possible. How two things correlate
Demonstration of how one variable influences another variable or other variables
Association. Measure of extent to which two variables are related
People first, research second; informed consent; voluntary participation; withdrawal at any time; restricted use of deception; debriefing; confidentiality
Bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment
Observer comes prepared with prior knowledge and expectations
Occurs when the group selected for a statistical study or survey is not random and does not represent the larger population
Tendency of participants in an experiment to consciously or subconsciously act in a way that they think the experimenter or researcher wants them to act
Courtesy bias (Social desirability response) tendency that some individuals have not fully stated their own happiness with the service or product because of a desire not to offend the person or organization that they are responding to
Observer effects Refers to subjects, altering their behavior when they are aware an observer is present
Structuralism Sought to identify the basic building blocks of the mind through introspection
Functionalism Study how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment
Psychoanalysis perspective Unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts
Psychodynamic perspective Emphasizes unconscious psychological processes and contends that childhood experiences are crucial in shaping adult personalities
Behaviorism Objective, observable environmental influences in overt behavior; conditioning
Humanism Free will, self actualization, positive psychology, growth-seeking human nature
Cognitive psychology Thought, perception, and information processing
Multitasking When someone tries to perform to tasks simultaneously from one task to another or attempt to perform two or more tasks at rapid succession
Neuroscience/biopsychology Genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system
Nature vs nurture controversy Involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment (either prenatal or during a person’s life) or by a person’s genes
Wilhelm Wundt Set up first laboratory of experimental psychology (1879). Used the scientific method to study the structure of perception and sensation. Structuralist
William James Father of American psychology, author of Principles of Psychology; functionalist
Max Wertheimer Studied sensation and perception; gestalt psychology
Sigmund Freud Conception of the unconscious mind; psychoanalyst
Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning; famous for conditioning experiment; behaviorist
B. F. Skinner Operant conditioning; behaviorist
John Watson Psychology should remain scientific observable behavior; Little Albert experiment; behaviorist
Psychiatrist Physician who specializes in branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders
Psychoanalyst Person who practices psychoanalysis
Psychiatric social worker Specialized type of medical social work that involves supporting, providing therapy to, and coordinating the care of individuals who are severely mentally ill and to require hospitalization or other types of insensitive psychiatric help
Psychologist An expert or specialist in psychology
Sport psychologist Often help athletes cope with the intense pressure that comes from competition and overcome problems with focus and motivation, improve performance, and recover from injuries
Phenomoneologist Study structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view
Developmental psychologist Studies humans across the lifespan
Forensic psychologist Conduct screenings or assessments of prisoners, investigate psychological disorders among criminal and civil court defendants, and to examine the mental state of criminals to determine if they are able to stand trial
Clinical psychologist Meet with clients to identify problems – emotional, mental, and behavioral – in their lives. Will diagnose any existing or potential disorders
Counseling psychologist Evaluate their patients’ current situations and problems and then offer advice
Central Nervous System Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System Transmits info to and from CNS
Autonomic Nervous System Automatically regulates glands, internal organs and blood vessels, people dilation, digestion, and blood pressure
Somatic Nervous System Carries sensory information and controls movement of skeletal muscles
Parasympathetic division Division of autonomic Nervous System; maintain bodily functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy (think rest)
Sympathetic division Division of autonomic Nervous system; prepares the body to react and expand energy in times of stress (think arousal)
Spinal cord reflex Simple behaviors produced by CNS pathways that lie entirely within the spinal cord
Reflex arc Neural pathway that controls a reflex
Neurons Send and receive messages in the form of electrochemical information
Axon Long extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the body of the cell
Axon terminals Hair like end of the axon
Cell body Contains the nucleus of the neuron (also called the soma)
Dendrites Branching structure of a neuron that receives messages (attached to cell body)
Myelin sheath The fatty substance that surrounds and protects some nerve fibers
Nucleus The center of the cell body of the neuron that contains the genetic material of the cell
Glial cells Surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them
Myelin Insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord
Electrochemical communication process Sensory receptors interact with stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, and pain which is transformed into a code that is carried to the brain by a chain of neurons. When that occurs, electrical signal is triggered to be generated through neuron
Synapses Junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses passed by diffusion of a neurotransmitter
Reuptake The absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted
100 billion neurons Number of neurons in brain
Interneurons A neuron which transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc
Sensory neurons Nerve cells with the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organisms environment into internal electrical impulses
Motor neurons Where on his cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and his axon project to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control affect your organs, mainly muscles and glands
Mirror neurons Neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers in the brain; transmit neural impulse across synapse
Acetycholine Stimulates muscle contraction; involved in memory, learning, and general intellectual functioning
Dopamine Involved in movement, attention, learning, and pleasurable experiences
Serotonin Involved in sleep, moods, and emotional states
Norepinephrine Involved in increasing heartbeat and arousal, as well as learning and memory retrieval (adrenaline)
GABA Helps to offset excitatory messages and regulate daily sleep-wake cycles (calm down neurotransmitter)
Endorphins Involved in pain perception and positive emotions
Effect of deficit of acetylcholine Alzheimers is a result of what neurotransmitter DEFICIT?
Increases activity of acetylcholine Nicotine INCREASES the activity of what neurotransmitter?
Decreases activity of acetylcholine Curare and Botox DECREASE activity of what neurotransmitter?
Effect of deficit of dopamine Parkinson’s disease is the result of what neurotransmitter DEFICIT?
Effect of excess dopamine Schizophrenia is the result of what neurotransmitter EXCESS?
Increases activity of dopamine Illegal drugs, nicotine, and el dopa (Parkinson’s medication) INCREASE activity of which neurotransmitter?
Decreases activity of dopamine Some antipsychotic drugs result in the DECREASE of activity of which neurotransmitter?
Deficit of serotonin Depression, anxiety, and insomnia is the result of DEFICIT of which neurotransmitter?
Increases activity of serotonin Ambien, LSD, prescription sleep medication, ecstasy, and some antidepressants INCREASES the activity of which neurotransmitter?
Deficit of norepinephrine Depression and learning disabilities (ADHD) are the result of DEFICIT of which neurotransmitter?
Excess norepinephrine Anxiety is the result of EXCESS of which neurotransmitter?
Increases norepinephrine activity Cocaine, caffeine, and amphetamine INCREASES the activity of which neurotransmitter?
deficit of GABA Hard to sleep, related to anxiety, can be related to seizures is the result of DEFICIT of which neurotransmitter?
Excess of GABA Sleep disorder (Hypersomnia) and eating disorders is a result of EXCESS of which neurotransmitter?
Increases GABA activity Alcohol INCREASES activity in which neurotransmitter?
Deficit of endorphins Low pain tolerance is the DEFICIT of which neurotransmitter?
Excess of endorphins High pain tolerance to the point where one cannot tell how much pain they’re in is the result of EXCESS of which neurotransmitter?
Increase activity of endorphins Exercise, opiates (including heroin), and alcohol results in INCREASED activity of which neurotransmitter?
Phrenology The detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities
Medulla The lowest section of the brainstem; it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing, etc.
Reticular formation (reticular activating system) Set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem; not anatomically well-defined because it includes neurons located in different parts of the brain
Pons Part of the brain stem that joins the hemispheres of the cerebellum and connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum; located just above the medulla
Cerebellum Where to the brain below the back of the Cerebrum. It regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination
Thalamus Are the forebrain that relays info from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex
Hippocampus Plays a role in our emotions, ability to remember, and ability to compare sensory info to expectations
Hypothalamus Part of the forebrain that regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive, and aggression we feel; brain within a brain
Amygdala Fluence is our motivation, emotional control, fear response, and interpretations of nonverbal emotional expressions
Cerebrum Large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basil ganglia, and olfactory bulb; uppermost region of the central nervous system
Cerebral cortex Outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Corpus callosum Large bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres
Split brain studies If hemispheres are not connected, they function independently of one another
Frontal lobe Receives and coordinates messages from other lobes; motor control, speech production, higher functions (broca’s area, motor cortex)
Temporal lobe Hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control; contains wernicke’s area
Occipital lobe Vision and visual perception (visual cortex)
Parietal lobe Receives information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature; Center of imagination; bodily sensations; somatosensory cortex
Somatosensory cortex Sponsorable for processing somatic sensations
Motor cortex Region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements
Broca’s Area Speech production
Wernicke’s area Region of the brain that is important for language development; located in temple lobe
Hemispheric specialization/ hemispheric lateralization Refers to the different and specific functions performed by the two hemispheres of the brain
Right brain functions Nonverbal abilities (art, perceptual/spatiomanipulative skills, express emotion, recognize faces, patterns/melodies, some language comprehension), synthetic (figure things out by combining to form wholes), Controls left side of body, left visual field
Left brain functions Language functions (speaking, reading, writing, understanding language), analytical (figures things out step-by-step), Controls right side of body, right visual field
Neuroplasticity Brains ability to re-organize and change its structure and function
Neurogenesis Division and differentiation of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons
Goal of psychology: DESCRIPTION Tells “what” occurs
Goal of Psychology: EXPLANATION Tells “why” behavior or mental processes occurred
Goal of psychology: PREDICTION Identifies conditions “under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur”
Goal of psychology: CONTROL Applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals
Gestalt “Good figure” psychology. The whole is different than the combination of its parts
Carl Rogers Theory of personality development; humanist
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs; humanist
Created by: giannariche
Popular Psychology sets




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