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AP Psych 3bThe Brain

Unit 2 AP Psych brain anatomy

Brainstem The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.
Medulla The base of the brainstem; controls heart-beat and breathing
Reticular Formation A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
Thalamus The brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem.; it directs messages to the sensory
Cerebellum The “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Limbic System Doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Amygdala Two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
Hypothalamus A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
Split Brian A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them.
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Cognitive neuroscience The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
Dual processing The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
Cerebral Cortex The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center.
Glial Cells Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Frontal lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
Parietal lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and towards the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Occipital lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes area that receive information from the visual fields
Temporal lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
Motor Complex An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Sensory cortex Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body tough and movement sensations.
Association areas Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor and sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Aphasia Impairment of language
Broca’s Area Controls language expression
Wernicke’s Area Controls language reception
Plasticity The brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
Neurogenesis The formation of new neurons
Lesion Tissue destruction
Electroencephalogram An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
CT Scan Series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
PET Scan A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive from of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue
Fmri A technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
Created by: A. Shearer