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LESSON 7: Cause & Effect//Strengthen//Weaken//Grouping Games

How are causal conclusions weakened? **Similar cases that fail to follow same pattern **Introducing alternate causes
What are some ways for similar cases not to follow the same pattern? [ causal conclusions weakened] **Cause without effect -Showing claimed cause was not followed by claimed effect in similar situation **Effect without cause -Showing claimed effect was achieved despite absence of claimed cause in a similar situation
What is an unwarranted assumption? **Come from invalid arguments **Each of the prevalent flaws is an unwarranted assumption
What do Stable Grouping Games do? **Define the exact number of players in each group EX: Selling exactly 5 of the following 8 types of toys
What do Unstable Grouping Games do? **DO NOT define the sizes of the groups EX: Selling some of the following 8 types of toys
What is Cause/Effect? **Argument attempts to explain [why] something happened **Has causal relationships -1 factor produces another **Have causal conclusions -Have very high burden of proof **Can contain alternate causes -When something else could have produced an effect **Can appear on RC questions -Will ask you to strengthen/weaken relationships **Can appear on LR strengthen/weaken questions
What should your 1st thought be when encountering a causal conclusion? **What are some plausible alternate causes??
Created by: KyronCox