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Central Nervous Syst

Physiological Psychology

Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord
Hindbrain Above the spinal cord. Most primitive part of the brain that contains the pons, medulla, and cerebellum.
Midbrain Conncts the hindbrain and the forebrain. Contains the reticular activating system (RAS) and the substantia nigra
Forebrain Known as the cerebrum and contains cortical and subcortical structures
Spinal cord The spinal cord consists of a bundle of axons, dendrites, and cell bodies that transmit info between the brain and PNS Contains 31 pairs of spinal from top to bottom; These are 8 cervical nerves, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal
Spinal cord injury: Cervical nerves Quadropalegia - partial or complete loss of movement and/or senses in the arms, trunk, and legs
Spinal cord injury: Thoracic/Lumbar nerves Parapalegia - partial or complete loss of movement and/or senses in the legs and all or some of the trunk.
Peripheral Nervous System Contains the sensory and motor neurons outside of the CNS
Somatic Nervous System Transmits info from the body's sensory receptors to the CNS and from the CNS to skeletal muscles; involved in voluntary actions
Autonomic Nervous System Transmits info b/t the CNS and the smooth muscles of the organs and glands; Involved in involuntary actions, though some functions can be brought into voluntary control via biofeedback
Sympathetic Nervous System One branch of the autonomic nervous system; responsible for the fight or flight response - causes an increase in heart rate and respiration as well as sweating, and pupil dialation. Inhibits digestion and sexual activity
Parasympathetic Nervous System Rest and relaxation - causes body to return to state of rest after fight or flight response
General Adaptation Syndrom - Proposes that body's response to all types of stress is the same and is mediated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system
General Adaptation Syndrome: Alarm Reaction Stage Increased activity of the sympathetic NS gives body energy Pituitary gland releases Ach -> Adrenalla medulla release NorE and Epinephrine and Adrenal Cortex releases cortisol. This increases HR and resp., raises blood sugar
General Adaptation Syndrome: Resistance Stage If stress persists, resistance stage begins. Parasym NS attempts to return resp. and HR to normal levels, but cortisol remains high and helps maintain the body at a high level of energy
General Adaptation Syndrome: Exhaustion Stage Prolonged stress: Pituitary and adrenal glands lose abilityto maintain elevated hormone levels; Physiological processes start deteriorating. Neg effects: weakened immune system
Medulla Involuntary reflexes like coughing, swallowing, sneezing, gagging. Regulates vital ANS functions, breathing, HR, BP, and digestion
Damage to Medulla Damage, disease, and opiods can cause death
Pons - Connects halves of cerebellum and coordinates movement on both sides of the body - Connects medulla to cerebellum and cereb to forebrain - Arousal, sleep, & regulation of breathing by coordinating the transition b/t inhalation and exhalation
Cerebellum Coordinates & sequences complex movements that original in the motor cortex and is responsible for maintaining posture/balance Processing/storing procedural memories, (ex: riding a bike) & automatic response like reciting alphabet
Damage to cerebellum Ataxia - lack of muscle control, impaired balance and coordination, slurred speech, and blurred or double vision
Reticular/Ascending Activating System Network of neurons that extends from the medulla into midbrain Behavioral arousal, consciousness, controls sleep-wake cycle, and attention
Lesions to Reticular Activating System Comatose state, while direct stimulation can awaken an asleep person and cause an awake person to be more alert
Substantia Nigra Plays a role in reward-seeking behaviors and drug addiction Through connection w/basal ganglia, degeneration of DA cells in the substantia nigra contributes to the motor symptoms of Parkinson's, slowed movement, rigidity, and tremors
Created by: veb1922