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Merrill's ch:4

Abdomen

QuestionAnswer
Organs located in the abdominal cavity? Spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, stomach, small and large intestines, kidneys
Organs located within the pelvic cavity? Uterus, rectum, urinary bladder, sigmoid of large intestine, and reproductive organs
What is the name of the double-walled seromembranous sac that lines the abdominal cavity? Peritoneum
What are the two layers of the peritoneum? Parietal layer Visceral layer
What is the outer layer of the peritoneum that contacts the underside of the diaphragm? Parietal layer
What is the inner layer of the peritoneum that contacts the various organs ? Visceral layer
What is the retroperitoneum? Cavity behind the peritoneum
What are the two organs located in the retroperitoneum? Kidneys Pancreas
What are the two folds in the peritoneum called? Mesentery Omentum
What is the function of the two folds in the peritoneum? To support the viscera position
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Localized dilation of abdominal aorta
Ascites Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity
Bowel obstruction Blockage of bowel lumen
Ileus Failure of bowel peristalsis
Mestasis Transfer of a cancerous lesion from one area to another
Pneumoperitoneum Presence of air in peritoneal cavity
Tumor New tissue growth where cell proliferation is uncontrolled
The abdomen is divided into two cavities. The inferior cavity is the ____ Pelvic cavity
The liver, stomach, and pancreas are located in the ____ abdominal cavity
The portions of the peritoneum that function to support the viscera of the abdomen in position are the: Mesentery and omenta folds
Which structure forms the mesentery and omenta folds Peritoneum
Which three projections usually comprise the acute abdomen series for ambulatory patients? Supine KUB AP upright abdomen upright PA chest
To which level of the patient should the central ray be centered for the KUB when the patient is supine? Iliac crest
For the AP upright abdomen image of an adult of average size, why should the centering be slightly higher than the centering level used for the supine KUB image? To include the diaphragm
For the KUB image, when should respiration be suspended, and what effect will that have on the patient? On full expiration; elevates the diaphragm
Why is it desirable to include the diaphragm in the upright abdomen image? To demonstrate free air in the abdomen
Which projection should be used to demonstrate free air within the abdominal cavity when the patient is unable to stand for an upright abdomen image? AP projection; left lateral decubitus
Which projection does not demonstrate free air levels within the abdomen? AP projection with the patient supine
What is the major advantage of the PA projection of the abdomen over the AP projection of the abdomen? The PA projection reduces the exposure dose to the gonads
Which radiographic position of the abdomen requires that the patient be supine and that the central ray be directed to a lateral side of the patient, entering slightly anterior to midcoronal plane? Dorsal decubitus
Which rad position of the abdomen requires the patient be placed on their left side and IR be placed under patient and centered to abdomen @ level of iliac crests, the CR directed to enter right side slightly anterior to Midcoronal plane? Left lateral
The lateral projection with the patient placed in the dorsal decubitus position, the left lateral projection, and the left lateral decubitus position of the abdomen all require which of the following? The patient should suspend respiration after expiration
For lateral projection with the patient placed in the dorsal decubitus position where should should the central ray enter the patient? 2 inches anterior to midcoronal plane 2 inches above the level of the iliac crests
For the lateral projection with the patient placed in the dorsal decubitus position, which procedure should be performed to ensure that the entire abdomen is included on the image? Use support cushions to elevate the patient
Which structures should be examined to see whether the patient was rotated for a lateral projection of the abdomen? Pelvis and lumbar vertebrae
How is proper patient alignment evaluated on an AP projection, supine position (KUB) image of the abdomen? The vertebral column is centered in the collimated field
Which of the following is evaluated to check for rotation on an AP projection, supine position image of the abdomen? The ala of the ilia are symmetric
Which side must be demonstrated on an AP abdomen with the patient positioned left lateral decubitus when a pneumoperitoneum is suspected? Right
Which side must be demonstrated on the abdomen with the patient positioned left lateral decubitus when fluid accumulation is being evaluated? Left
The exposure factors for an AP projection image of the abdomen must be sufficient to demonstrate the soft tissues of the ___ Lower border of liver kidneys psoas muscles
An acute abdominal series may be ordered for all of the following reasons EXCEPT TO: use as a preliminary examination before contrast agent administration
What is the recommended sequence for performing an acute abdomen series when the patient cannot stand? Seated upright chest Supine AP abdomen Left lateral decubitus abdomen
To which level of the patient should the central ray be centered for the KUB when the patient is upright and the diaphragm is of interest? 2 inches above iliac crests
To which level of the patient should the central ray be centered for the KUB when the patient is upright and the bladder is of interest? Iliac crests
What is the recommended exposure field or CR plate size when performing a KUB? 14 x 17 inches (Lengthwise)
If free intraperitoneal air is suspected when performing a left lateral decubitus abdomen, how long should the patient lie on their side before exposure? 5 minutes
Created by: 2304598396295915