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Acute Neurological

3 conditions and descriptions

DescriptionCondition
This problem occurs as a result of bleeding from an artery in the brain, blockage of a brain artery due to an embolus or from occlusion of a brain artery due to atherosclerosis (fatty deposit in an artery that restricts or blocks blood flow). Stroke
Ischemia in just one part of the brain due to a blood vessel being blocked, either by atherosclerosis (fatty plaque buildup inside an artery) or by an embolism (piece of a blood clot from elsewhere travelled to the brain), or due to vascular spasm. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
The patient may experience changes in vision, severe headache, vomiting, photophobia, confusion, nuchal rigidity. If a bulge bursts, the released blood is very irritating to the brain and meninges. Cerebral aneurism
The body will work to restore blood flow - via an alternate route to the area; anastomoses or by angiogenesis. During the time of ischemia, the patient will have loss or impaired function somewhere in the body depending on area of brain ischemia. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
The loss of function may be regained after the swelling subsides (if treatment is prompt). The long term effects cannot be determined right away. Some body functioning may return completely or partially (depending on amount of damage). Stroke
The area of the brain that does not receive blood (only takes about 5 minutes) will infarct. The area surrounding the infarction will swell causing increased ICP. The part of the body normally innervated by the infarcted area will lose function. Stroke
Symptoms: a few minutes to a couple days & then resolve. Symptoms may include numbness or muscle weakness or loss of ability to move in an arm &/or leg, paresthesia (pins & needles), changes in vision, aphasia or confusion. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
This problem is cause by one or several bulges in a cerebral artery. Often, this occurs in the Circle of Willis in areas of bifurcation. The bulges may compress surrounding brain tissue or cranial nerves resulting in various effects. Cerebral aneurism
If the ruptured artery is very small, surgery may be successful. If the rupture is in a larger vessel, the diffuse release of blood will quickly increase ICP causing coma and death. Survival rates for this problem are not very good at about 50% at best. Cerebral aneurism
The problem, if mild, presents as flaccid paralysis (usually on one side only), sensory loss and confusion. Loss of function can vary greatly depending on the size of the brain infarction. If the area is large, coma and death occur. Stroke
Created by: Ronnni