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Law Vocabulary

Glossary A - C

accessory a person who assists in the commission of a crime, either before or after the fact
acquit to be found not guilty
action, case, suit, lawsuit a legal dispute brought into court for trial
actus reus an act in violation of the law, a guilty act
adjudication giving a judgment that protrays the decision of court
admissible evidence evidence which can legally and properly be used in court
adversary system each of the opposing parties has full opportunity to present and establish his/her oppsoing contentions before the court
affidavit a written and sworn statement witnessed by public or official who have the right to administer oaths
alibi an excuse or plea that a person was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed
allegation statement of a party to an action explaining what the party expects to prove
appeal the bringing of a case to a higher court for review
appellate court a court which hears appeals from a lower court
arraignment appearance before a judge. The defendant is told his rights, and given a lawyer if needed, and enters his plea
arrest taken into custody by a legal authority
attorney, lawyer person who has been trained and licensed to represesnt others in legal matters
bail sum of $ posted by defendant to guarantee his appearance in court
bail bondsman a person who will post bail to obtain the release of a defendant from jail for a 10% fee
bailiff a court official whose duties are to keep order in the courtroom and assist the jury
bench trial trial without a jury in which the judge decides the case
beyond a reasonable doubt entirely convinced, no rational doubt as to the defendant's guilt
bind over judge's decision to hold a criminal defendant for trial
booking being processed into jail
brief an attorney's written statement of a client's case filed in court. A summary of the facts in the case.
burden of proof prosecution must prove his case beyond a reasonable doubt
calendar court's list of cases to be heard by a judge
case law law established on precedent, rather than by legislation
certification the process of transferring a juvenile's case from the Juvenile Court to an adult court for trial
change of venue the removal of a trial begun in one jurisdiction to another jurisdiction
charge an accusation by the state against an individual
circumstantial evidence evidence of an indirect nature. testimony not based on actual knowledge or observation
citation an official notice to appear in court and answer to charge(s)
Civil case a lawsuit brought by one citizen against another
common law a body of unwritten judicial opinion based upon custom, tradition, and precedent
concurrent jurisdiction 2 or more courts who share jurisdiction, each authorized to hear the case
concurrent sentence sentence under which two or more prison or jail sentences are served at the same time
conditional release a non-security release from custody which enforce regulations on the activities and associations of the defendant
consecutive sentence when 2 or more prison or jail sentences are served back to back
contempt of court any act involving disrepect to the court or failure to obey its rules or orders
continuance order of the court postponing the court's proceedings
contract a legally enforceable agreement between 2 parties who each promise to do certain things
conviction in a criminal case, a finding that the defendant is guilty
corroborating evidence confirmation or support of the story of a witness or victim
county/district attorney; AKA prosecutor a lawyer employed by the government to prosecute criminal cases
court a place where legal proceedings occur
court of record a court whose proceeding are permanently recorded
criminal case a case brought by the government against a person accused of committing a crime
cross examination the questioning of a witness by the lawyer for the opposing side
culpability the act, conduct, or negligence of a person
Created by: Tiffastic
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