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Module 1

Surgical Pharmacology

TermDefinition
Absorption Process by which a drug is taken into the body and moves from the site of administration into the blood.
Adverse effect Undesired, potentially harmful side effects of drugs.
Agonist Drug molecule that binds to a receptor and causes a response.
Antagonist Drug that binds to specific receptor sites and prevents other medications from binding to these same sites, reversing or not allowing them to have an effect.
Bioavailability The extent to which an administered amount of a drug reaches the site of action and is available to produce its effects.
Biotechnology Concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.
Biotransformation Process of changing the chemical composition of a drug from lipid-soluble molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be more easily excreted; usually takes place in the liver; also known as drug metabolism.
Bolus Entire dose of medication given all at once.
Contraindication Condition when the use of a given medication should be avoided.
Distribution Process in which the circulatory system transports a drug throughout the body and drug molecules eventually diffuse out of the bloodstream to the site of action.
Duration Time between onset and disappearance of drug effects.
Emulsion Medication contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier.
Enteral Pertaining to the intestinal tract.
Excretion Process of elimination of drug molecules from the body; usually by the urinary system.
Hypersensitivity Allergic response resulting from previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug; a type of adverse effect to a drug.
Idiosyncratic effect Rare and unpredictable adverse effects of some drugs on individuals in which the mechanism of the effect may not be known or clearly understood.
Indication Reason a medication is used to treat a condition.
Local effect Medication acts at the site of application.
Onset Time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of effects.
Parenteral Pertaining to any drug administration route other than the intestinal tract.
Pharmacodynamics Study of how drug actions affect the body.
Pharmacokinetics Study of how the body processes drugs.
Plasma protein binding Process in which some drug molecules attach to proteins (albumins and globulins) contained in blood plasma.
Reconstituted Mixing a powder with a liquid to form a solution.
Side effect Predictable but unintended effect of a drug.
Solubility Characteristic indicating how easily a drug can be dissolved in a fluid.
Solution Mixture of drug particles fully dissolved in a liquid.
Suspension Mixture of undissolved drug particles floating in a liquid.
Synergist Drug that enhances the effect of another drug.
Systemic effect Medication acts throughout the body.
Topical Pertaining to a surface; drug administration route applied to the skin or a mucous membrane–lined cavity.
Controlled substances Medication with the potential to be misused or abused, controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration, and given a classification/schedule.
Narcotics Term for a controlled substance that depresses the central nervous system for pain control and has the potential to become habit-forming.
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration, part of the Department of Justice, established to enforce the Controlled Substances Act.
FDA Food and Drug Administration. Agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that regulates the pharmaceutical industry.
The Joint Commission Organization that evaluates and accredits health care organizations and programs in the United States.
OTC Term used for over-the-counter medication that does not require a prescription.
PDR Physicians’ Desk Reference. Reference that provides information on medications used in medical and surgical practice.
USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary. Two different official national lists of approved medications.
Created by: rleem84
 

 



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