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PSY 210

Chapter 4

TermDefinition
Separation Anxiety Distress when a familiar caregiver or loved one leaves; most obvious between 9 and 14 months.
Stranger Wariness An infant's expression of concern (a quiet stare while clinging to a familiar person or a look of fear) when a stranger appears.
Self-Awareness A persons' realization that he/she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people.
Temperament Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation.
Attachment According to Ainsworth, "an affectional tie" that an infant has with a caregiver-a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
Secure Attachment A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.
Insecure-Avoidant Attachment A pattern of which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return.
Insecure-Resistant/Ambivalent Attachment A pattern of attachment in which an infant;s anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as wen the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver, such infants both resist and seek contact on reunion.
Disorganized Attachment A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return.
Strange Situation A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults comings and goings in an unfamiliar situation.
Social Referencing Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions.
Social Learning The acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others.
Trust vs Mistrust Erikson's first crisis of psychosocial development: infants learn a basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met.
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development: toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and bodies.
Proximal Parenting Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby.
Distal Parenting Caregiving practices that keep some distance from the baby, with minimal holding and touching.
Created by: cpruett8