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ch 1-4

Experimental group test subjects who were selected to participate in an experiment
Researcher Bias whenever there is a flaw in a survey’s research design
Behavior what can be observed
Structuralism inside the mind-asking what is there?
Functionalism focuses on adaptation the "why"
Natural Selection/Evolutionary Perspective process in where only the strong survive
Biological Perspective focus on brain and nervous system
Behavioral Perspective all behavior was determined by stimuli in the environment
Mental Processes thoughts, feelings, motives we have privately cannot be observed
psychodynamic process Emphasizes unconscious thought, conflict between biological drives like sex, societies demand early family experiences.
Cognitive perspective that focuses on mental processes, perception, and language as a way of explaining and understanding human behavior.
Humanistic Perspective typically holds that people are inherently good, and encourages the viewing of the self as a "whole person" instead of the sum of one's parts. It encourages self-exploration as opposed to the study of behavior in other people.
Socio-cultural perspective the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings and thus behaviors are influenced by actual, implied or imagined presence of others and the environment around them.
safe s's ****STAR SOME- overgeneralizations SUGGEST- nothing is 100%
Theory formed idea
Hypothesis educated guess of outcome
Descriptive research defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the population or phenomenon that is being studied. the "what"
Correlational research tells about the relationship between variables
experiment a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.
Independent variable a variable (often denoted by x) whose variation does not depend on that of another.
dependent variable a variable (often denoted by y) whose value depends on that of another.
control group The control group plays an important role in the research process by giving researchers something with which to compare the experimental group
research participant bias individuals involved in an experiment act or respond in ways they believe correspond with what the researchers are looking for
informed concent ensures that a patient, client, and research participants are aware of all the potential risks and costs involved in a treatment or procedure
neuron nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses
afferent nerves messages arrive
efferent nerves messages exit
neural networks artifical network or mathematical model for information processing based on how neurons and synapses work in the human brai
sympathetic nervous system fight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system calms the body
complexity orchestration of brain that allow you to read, think, dance etc.
integration putting the information together
neurotransmitters chemical substances
acetylcholine help engage muscle action, learning, memory damage-acoma
GABA gamma-amino-butyric-acid Brake pedal,tells neurons to STOP lowers anxiety
Glutamate tells neurons to FIRE Excess- memory, schizophrenic , anxiety, depression
NE norepinephrine activated under stress, not enough depression, too much manic sympathetic system
Dopamine DA ****** STAR reward pleasure/ what we eat do- makes us feel good, no dopamine-no life/mice died. IMPORTANT
serotonin- 5-HT Happy chemical - low= depression high=violent aggressive behavior, mood stabilizer!!!!!!! 90% serotonin comes from food!
edorphins Natural Pain killers
Oxytocin love & bonding- uterine contractions bfeed and labor
limbic system set of brain structures including the hippocampus and amygdala and anterior thalamic nuclei and a limbic cortex that support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior and long term memory.
hippocampus memory
amygdala fear and discrimination for organisms survival
cerebellum motor coordination
medulla breathing and reflexes
pons sleep and arousal
nature vs nurture Nature is often defined in this debate as genetic or hormone-based behaviors, while nurture is most commonly defined as environment and experience.
genotype what u inherited-genotype of an organism is the genetic code in its cells
phenotype visible or expressed trait, such as hair color- what u look like outside- also be enviromental
hypothalamus eating, drinking, sex- plays role emotion and stress
mirror neurons sparks brain activity in the same place as when we are watching someone else doing the activity
dominant-recessive gene principle if one gene of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect, overriding the potential influence of the recessive gene
electrochemical transmission- start as electro change to neurotransmitter
synaptic transmission 1.electric impulse is converted into chemical 2.axon release into neuro trans gap 3. dendrite receptor site detects neuro then restart
adaptability/plasticity change in the brains neural structure to enable adjustment to experience, to compensate for lost function and also to maximize remaining functions in the event of brain injur
mri Magnetic resonance imaging is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body
CT-cat scan Computed tomography- produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images.
PET sugar an image made using positron emission tomography, especially one of the brain.
fmri Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow
lobes of brain occipital, frontal, temporal, parietal
Occipital brain lobe eyes/vision
frontal brain lobe intelligence, decisions, personality
temporal lobe brain hearing speech language memory
parietal brain lobe balance, spatial location
sensation what we feel/smell/see/taste hear
perception interpretation of sensation
bottom up related to sensation- new experinece
top-down related to perception- past experience
sensory receptors- photorecetoption, mechanoreception and chemoreceoption
photoreceoption vision/eyesight
mechanoreceopetion touch hearing VIBRATION
chemoreception smell and taste
noise anything that disrupts- sounds/stress/worries
absolute threshold smallest amount of intensity from a stimulus that is detected by a person's senses 50% time
difference threshold minimum difference in stimulation that a person can detect 50 percent of the time
subliminal perception Subliminal messages and perception are linked to the idea of mind contro
webers law 2 stimuli must differ by constant proportion to be conceived as different low levels stimulation- small changes can be noticed, large levels stimulation large simulation to notice
signal detection theory approach to perception that focuses on decisions making in times of uncertainty
sensory adaption ability to adapt to sensations- like freezing pool
perceptual set readiness to perceive something in a particular way
figure-ground relationship organize perceptual field into stimuli that stand out
apartment movement stationary object appears to be moving
inattentional blindness failure to detect unexpected events when attention is engaged on a task
sustained attention ability to maintain focus on selected task for prolonged time
executive attention involves planning, error detection, planning goals monitoring progress on tasks, dealing with novel or difficult tasks
stream of consciousness- beliefs, thoughts values environment condition switch through them-think...do...feel
awareness know you exists, know where you are know u have thoughts and feelings
arousal physiological state of engagement
anterior cingulate part of the brain associate with will power
think-feel-do process think of something...feeling it/plan it...do it
unconscious thought teeth brushing, reaching for drink.. automatic process
biological rhythms periodic physiological function, not aware they are happening
circadian rhythms biological process of sleep/wake
REM sleep rapid eye movement, dream state -the end of sleep
insomnia condition where you cant sleep
narcolopsy condition where u fall asleep
sleep apnea stop breathing in sleep
.subconscious awareness incubation, step back and come back with answer
tolerance build up where you need more of the drug
physical dependence withdrawal you feel, shakes, aches etc
lower level consciousness********************* .automatic processing- daydreaming, rumination (personal cannot get rid of bad event) and fantasy
neurotransmitters involved with sleep norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT
psychological dependence feeling like u need it, cravings, anxiety
depressents slow down mental and physical activity alcohol, benzos, tranqulizers and opiates- pain relief, anxiety sleep issue- trouble breathing death, -high addiction
stimulants-increase CNS activity********** uppers CAFFINE***** NICOTINE -high abuse!! amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy MDMA alert, excitable euphoric,, OD brain damage memory, heart prblems insomnia death
hallucinogens modify perceptual experiences lsd, marijuana... time distortion, strong hallucinations, OD fatiguq mental disturbance - LOW risk
beta waves wake w high frequency patterns reflect concentration and alertness
alpha waves wake w low frequency- drowsy relaxed
theta waves try to sleep/drowsy, feeling like falling0
delta waves 3/4 surgery, knocked out- if jump on u wont wake up!
preconscious- PCS all things that are brought out to talk about easily!
repressed all things try to hide- psychologist goal is to get these out and work through them
higher level consciousness ****************** requires deep thinking- alert
alerted state of consciousness meditation, drug, hypnosis
suprachiasmatic nucleus - sir-prac-TEE-smatic / SCM **** regulation of physiological circadian rhythms
theories of dreams- Freud manifest- dream content and latent- dream meaning
theories of dreams- activation-synthesis occurs when cerebral cortex synthetizes neuro activity from the lower part of the brain dreams result from the brains attempt to find logic in random activity that occurs during sleep
theories of dreams- information processing theory that one can study dreams applying same concepts used in studying waking mind
Kinesthetic senses posture
vestibular senses balance
Created by: Aharrissmith