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Biology Exam Review

Activation Energy the quantity of energy required for a reaction to occur.
Active Site the region on an enzyme to which the substrate or substrates bind.
Active Transport movement across a semi-permeable membrane that requires energy output from the cell.
Acid is a chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions or accepts electrons.
Aerobic requiring air or oxygen for life or survival.
Anaerobic not requiring air or oxygen for life or survival.
Atom the smallest possible particle of an element that retains all the characteristics of the element.
ATP the molecule that cells use for energy.
Base a substance that increases OH- concentration when added to water.
Carbohydrates a substance composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that includes monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide.
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction without itself being changed in the reaction.
Cell the smallest unit of life that can function independently.
Cellular Respiration the process of the cell making it's own energy.
Compound a pure substance made up of 2 or more chemically combined elements.
Concentration the amount of a substance in a given volume.
Covalent Bond the chemical bond that forms when 2 atoms share electrons.
Denaturization occurs when the shape of a protein is changed so much that it cannot perform it's function.
Diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Electrolyte a liquid or gel that contains ions and can be decomposed by electrolysis, the ionized or ion-able constituents of a living cell, blood, or other organic matter.
Electron a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
Element a pure substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into other substances.
Endocytosis a process that transports larger substances into the cell; the cell membrane folds around the substance to be absorbed and pinched off, forming a vesicle or vacuole.
Enzyme a protein that acts as a biological catalyst, increasing the speed at which chemical reactions in the body occur.
Exocytosis a process that transports substances out of the cell; a vesicle containing substances to be removed fuses with the cell membrane and the substances are released.
Facilitated Diffusion a form of diffusion across a semi-permeable membrane in which substances are transported through the membrane with the help of proteins; does not require energy from the cell.
Fermentation a chemical process that makes ATP without oxygen.
Glycolysis the first step of aerobic cellular respiration in which a glucose molecule splits into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate.
Created by: Kaylalauzon2002