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Matter flash cards

Flash cards for matter notes unit 9

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of kinetic theory? An explanation of how the particles in gases behave.
What are 2 of the 4 parts to explaining the kinetic theory? All matter is made of tiny particles (atoms, molecules, ions). These particles are in constant, random motion.
What is the definition of a solid? Least amount of energy. Energy is vibrational and rotational. Definite shape and volume
What is the definition of a crystalline solid? Particles have specific geometric arrangements. Definite melting and boiling point.
What is the definition of an amorphous solid? No specific melting point. Gradually turn to a liquid over wide temp. range. Lack crystal structure.
What is the definition of a liquid? More energy than a solid. Particles can slide past each other (flow). Vibrational, Rotational, and Translational energy. Definite volume, but no definite shape
What is the definition of liquid crystals? Substances that keep their geometric arrangement when changing from a solid to a liquid, but can lose the arrangement when heated or electrified
What is the definition of gas? More energy than solids and liquids. No definite volume or shape. Large spaces between particles
What is the definition of plasma? Enough energy to overcome attractive forces within the atom itself (electrons removed). Most common state of matter in the universe
What is the definition of thermal expansion? Increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased.
Water is unlike most substances because? It expands when freezing.
Water is one of the only substances that is what? Less dense as a solid than as a liquid.
What is the definition of boiling? Occurs when vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure (boiling point). Requires more energy. All particles involved.
What is the definition of evaporation? Occurs only at the surface. Requires less energy. Occurs at any temperature and pressure.
What is the definition of heat of fusion? The energy required to change a substance from solid to liquid at its melting point.
What is the definition of heat of vaporization? The amount of energy required for a liquid at its boiling point to become a gas.
What is the definition of fluid? A substance without a fixed shape. Has the ability to flow. Liquids and gases.
What is the definition of buoyant force? Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in or floating on the fluid.
What is the abbreviation for buoyant force? Fb
What is the SI unit of buoyant force? N
What is the definition of Archimedes' Principle? The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
How is it possible to lay on a bed of nails without being injured? Each nail only has to support a small fraction of your weight, producing a low pressure on each nail.
What is the definition of pressure? Force exerted per unit area.
What is the abbreviation of pressure? P
What is the SI unit of pressure? N/m2 or Pascals (Pa)
What are other units of pressure? kPa, atm, psi, mm of Hg, in. of Hg.
What is the equation for pressure? P = F / A
Why do high heels sink in snow? Force over small area results in high pressure
Why do snow shoes float on snow? Force over large area results in low pressure
Pressure increases with depth in a fluid because? As depth increases, more fluid weight needs to be supported.
Turbines are placed at the bottom of dams because? Pressure increases with depth.
Air pressure on top of Mt. Everest is approximately what of air pressure at sea level? 1/3
Foods need to be cooked longer at high altitudes because? A lower pressure results in a lower boiling point.
Pressure is always a pushing what? Force
Suction is created when what pushes what? A high pressure pushes against a low pressure.
Suction cups wouldn’t work in outer space because? They need a pressure difference.
What is the definition of Pascal's Principle? Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
What is the equation for Pascal's Principle? P1 = P2 → F1 / A1 = F2 / A2
What is the definition of the Venturi Effect? Narrowing a stream of fluid increases the speed of the fluid
The current in a river will increase when what? The river enters a narrower canyon.
What is the definition of Bernoulli's Principle? When the velocity of a stream of fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.
What is the definition of Viscosity? The resistance of a fluid to flowing.
What is the definition of Boyle's Law? Pressure and volume have an inverse relationship when temperature is held constant.
What is the definition of Charles' Law? The temperature and volume of a gas have a direct relationship when pressure is held constant.
What is the equation for Charles' Law V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
What is the definition of Gay-Lussac Law? The pressure and temperature of a gas have a direct relationship when volume is held constant.
What is the equation for Gay-Lussac's Law? P1 / T1 = P2 / T2
What is the definition of matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space
What is the definition of a substance? Type of matter with a fixed composition
What is the definition of a compound? Substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined in a fixed proportion
What is the definition of a mixture? Matter composed of two or more substances that can be separated by physical means.
What is the definition of a heterogeneous mixture? Mixture in which different materials remain distinct
Created by: grace152019