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Chapters 21 and 22

Flash cards for extra credit

QuestionAnswer
What is a solution? A homogeneous mixture
What is a solute? The substance being dissolved in solution
What is a solvent? the substance present in a larger quantity that dissolves the solute
What is an example of a solute? Flavoring and sugar in Kool-aid
What is an example of a solvent? Water in Kool-aid
What is an alloy? Mixture of elements with metallic properties
What is bronze made of? Copper + Tin
What is brass made of? Copper + Zinc
What is steel made of? Iron + Carbon
How do you make a solid dissolve more quickly in a liquid? Increase temperature, Agitate solution (stir), and/or Increase surface area
How do you make a gas dissolve more quickly in a liquid? Decrease temperature, Increase pressure, and/or Do NOT agitate!
What is concentration? Amount of solute actually dissolved in a given amount of solvent
What can concentration be expressed as? grams solute / 100 g solution, % of solution by volume, % of solution by mass, ppm (parts per million)
What is the definition of dilute? Relatively small amount of solute in large amount of solvent
What is the definition of concentrated? Relatively large amount of solute in small amount of solvent
What is the definition of solubility? The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature
What is the definition of unsaturated? Any solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature
What is the definition of saturated? Contains all of the solute it can hold at a certain temperature
What is the definition of supersaturated? Contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
How do you create a supersaturated state? Made by heating a saturated solution, adding more solute, and then letting the solution cool
What is the definition of electrolytes? Compounds that produce solutions of ions in solution and conduct electricity
What is the definition of Ionization? The process in which molecular compounds dissolve in water and form charged particles
What is the definition of dissociation? The process in which positive and negative ions of an ionic solid mix with the solvent to form a solution
What is the definition of non-electrolytes? Substance that forms no ions in water and does not conduct electricity
What is the definition of boiling point elevation? Adding more solute particles increases the boiling point of a solution
What is the definition of freezing point depression? Adding more solute particles decreases the freezing point of a solution
What is the definition of polar? Substances that will dissolve ionic and polar molecules
What is the definition of nonpolar? Substances with weak intermolecular attractions that will not dissolve in polar solvents
What are the drawbacks of nonpolar solvents? Many are often flammable, many are hazardous if they come into contact with skin, and many are extremely toxic if ingested or inhaled
What is the definition of organic solvents? Hazardous solvents found in some glues, epoxies, and paints that can affect the human nervous system and cause growth and developmental problems
What are organic solvents also called? Also called volatile organic compounds or VOCs
What is the definition of soaps? Long-chained molecules that have both polar and nonpolar properties
What is the definition of acid? Substance that produces H+ in a water solution
What is the definition of Hydronium Ions? H3O+ ions formed when an acid is added to water
What is the definition of base? Substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
What is the definition of strong acid? All the acid ionizes upon dissolving in water
What are examples of strong acid? Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid
What is the definition of weak acid? Only partially ionizes upon dissolving in water
What are examples of weak acid? acetic acid (vinegar), carbonic acid
What is the definition of strong base? dissociates completely in water
What is the definition of weak base? only partially dissociates in water
What is the definition of pH? A measure of the concentration of H+ or H3O+ ions in a solution
What is the definition of buffers? Solutions that contain ions that react with acids or bases to minimize their effects on pH
What is the definition of acid rain? rain with a pH below 5.6
What is the definition of neutralization? A chemical reaction between an acid and a base that forms a salt and water
What is the definition of salt? A compound formed when the negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions from a base
What is the definition of titration? The process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
What is the definition of soaps? salts made by adding organic acids to bases
Created by: grace152019