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RAD 141

Unit 1 - ch 2,3,6,7

Define ABSORBED DOSE The amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object (eg, patient's body tissues) This absorbed energy is responsible for biologic damage resulting from tissues being exposed to radiation. SI unit - Gray (Gy)
Define EFFECTIVE DOSE (EfD) Provides a measure of overall risk of exposure to humans from ionizing radiation. Accounts for dose from ALL types of ionizing radiation to various tissues. Accounts for risk of developing radiation-induced cancer or genetic damage to reproductive organs
Define ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Radiation composed of interacting, varying electric and magnetic fields that propagate through space at the speed of light. includes radio waves, microwaves, visible light, UV, X Rays, and gamma rays
Define ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves.
Define ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE Electric and magnetic fields that fluctuate rapidly as the travel through space, including radio waves, microwaves, visible light and x-rays
Define EQUIVALENT DOSE (EqD) Used to assess exposure by various types of ionizing radiation. Attempts to numerically specify differences in transferred energy & potential biologic harm. Absorbed dose times associated radiation weighting factor is EqD. Enables calculation of EfD
Define IONIZATION Radiation that produces positively and negatively charged particles (ions) when passing through matter
Define ISOTOPES Atoms that have the same atomic # but different numbers of neutrons. Maybe used for nuclear medicine
Define MANMADE RADIATION (ARTIFICIAL) Ionizing radiation created by humans. Also called ARTIFICIAL radiation.
Define MILLIGRAY (mGy) A subunit of a gray - equal to 1/1000 rad
Define MILLISIEVERT (mSv) A subunit of a sievert - equal to 1/1000Sv
Define NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION Ionizing radiation from environmental sources, including radioactive materials in the earth, cosmic radiation from space, and radionuclides deposited in the human body via the food chain
Define PARTICULATE RADIATION As opposed to x-rays, which are electromagnetic radiations, particulate radiation is a form of radiation that includes ALPHA particles (nuclei of He), BETA particles (electrons), NEUTRONS, PROTONS that are ejected from atoms at very high speed.
Define RADIATION Kinetic energy that passes from one location to another; a transfer of energy that results from either a change occurring naturally within an atom or a process caused by interaction of a particle with an atom.
Define RADIATION DOSE Amount of radiation received by an individual. The amount of energy transferred to electrons in biologic tissue by ionizing radiation is the basis of this concept.
Define RADIOACTIVE DECAY A naturally occuring process in which atoms with unstable nuclei relieve that instability by various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions, including charged particles, uncharged particles, and photons.
Define RADIOISOTOPE Combination of atoms with same Z # but different neutrons that lead to an unstable nucleus
Define RADON The first decay product of radium; a colorless, odorless, heavy radioactive gas that, along with its own decay products, polonium-218 and polonium-214 (solid) is always present in air. It comprises the largest component of natural background radiation
Created by: Larobbins