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pre-AP English exam

Rreymanns 1st period

TermDefinition
act a main division of a play
allegory a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one
allusion Allusion is a figure of speech, in which an object or circumstance from unrelated context is referred to covertly or indirectly. It is left to the audience to make the direct connection
amplification the action of enlarging upon or adding detail to a story or statement
anaphora the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses
antagonist a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary
antithesis Antithesis is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect
aphorism a concise statement of a scientific principle, typically by an ancient classical author
apostrophe an exclamatory passage in a speech or poem addressed to a person (typically one who is dead or absent) or thing (typically one that is personified)
aside (in drama) a remark or passage in a play that is intended to be heard by the audience but unheard by the other characters in the play
blank verse verse without rhyme, especially that which uses iambic pentameter
character a person in a novel, play, or movie
climax the most intense, exciting, or important point of something; a culmination or apex
climax (in rhetoric) is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance
conduplicatio a rhetorical term for the repetition of one or more words in successive clauses
connotation the abstract meaning or intension of a term, which forms a principle determining which objects or concepts it applies to
couplet two lines of verse, usually in the same meter and joined by rhyme, that form a unit
denotation the object or concept to which a term refers, or the set of objects of which a predicate is true
dialogue conversation between two or more people as a feature of a book, play, or movie
diction the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing
drama a play for theater, radio, or television
dramatic irony a literary technique, originally used in Greek tragedy, by which the full significance of a character's words or actions are clear to the audience or reader although unknown to the character
epic a long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation
epistrophe the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses or sentences
ethos the characteristic spirit of a culture, era, or community as manifested in its beliefs and aspirations
exposition a comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory
external conflict struggle between a literary or dramatic character and an outside force such as nature or another character, which drives the dramatic action of the plot
foil character a character who contrasts with another character, usually the protagonist, to highlight particular qualities of the other character
foreshadowing a warning or indication of (a future event)
free verse poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter
hyperbole exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally
iambic pentameter a line of verse with five metrical feet, each consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable
imagery visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work.
inference Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word infer means to carry forward
internal conflict psychological struggle within the mind of a literary or dramatic character, the resolution of which creates the plot's suspense
juxtaposition the fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect
logos appeal to logic; is a way of persuading an audience with reason, using facts and figures
metaphor a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable
monologue a long speech by one actor in a play or movie, or as part of a theatrical or broadcast program
motivation the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way
myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths
onomatopoeia the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named
paraphrase express the meaning of (the writer or speaker or something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity
pathos Pathos appeals to the emotions of the audience and elicits feelings that already reside in them. Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric, as well as in literature, film, and other narrative art
personification the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form
playwright a person who writes plays
plot the main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar work, devised and presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence
point of view the narrator's position in relation to a story being told
polysyndeton a stylistic device in which several coordinating conjunctions are used in succession in order to achieve an artistic effect
procatalepsis is a figure of speech in which the speaker raises an objection to their own argument and then immediately answers it
prologue a separate introductory section of a literary or musical work
prose written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure
protagonist the leading character or one of the major characters in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional text
rhetoric the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques
rhetorical question a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer
rhyme scheme the ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or verse
satire the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues
setting the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place
shift (in poetry) the shift introduces a change in the speaker's understanding of what he is narrating, signaling to readers that he has reached an insight
simile a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid
soliloquy an act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when by oneself or regardless of any hearers, especially by a character in a play
sonnet a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line
speaker a person who speaks
suspense a state or feeling of excited or anxious uncertainty about what may happen
symbol a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract
theme the subject of a talk, a piece of writing, a person's thoughts, or an exhibition; a topic
tone the general character or attitude of a place, piece of writing, situation
tragedy Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences
count Paris He is handsome, wealthy, and a kinsman to Prince Escalus
prince he is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs
tybalt a hotheaded, loyal swordsman who thought he was protecting the Capulet name
friar Laurence a holy man who is trusted and respected by the other characters
nurse has a role equivalent to that of Juliet's mother and regards Juliet as her own daughter
benvolio serves as an unsuccessful peacemaker in the play, attempting to prevent violence between the Capulet and Montague families
romeo handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. He lives in the middle of a violent feud between his family and the Capulets, but he is not at all interested in violence.
mercutio 'Loyal,' 'devoted,' 'funny' and 'witty' are just a few of the words that describe Romeo's best friend
Juliet go getter, very mature, romeos love interest
rosaline She is the niece of Lord Capulet. Although an unseen character, her role is important. Romeo is at first deeply in love with Rosaline and expresses his dismay at her not loving him back.
Zeus king if gods; sky/heaven
Poseidon Sea
Hades Underworld
Hermes messenger of gods
Dionysus god of partying
Hera queen of gods; marriage
Athena god of wisdom
Aphrodite goddess of love/beauty
Artemis hunting
hestia hearth and home
the furies Female creatures who avenge and punish all those who commit brutal crimes, especially between one family member and another. They are in charge of vengeance, jealousy and anger.
Aeolus God of the winds
nymphs All nymphs are said to be female and all represent different aspects of nature, such as trees, streams, mountains, and meadows
cyclops Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. Polyphemus makes a show of hospitality at first, but he soon turns hostile. He devours two of Odysseus's men on the spot and imprisons Odysseus and the rest in his cave for future meals.
laestrogonians a race of powerful giants whose king, Antiphates, and unnamed queen turn Odysseus's scouts into dinner
titans the deities in Greek mythology that preceded the Olympians
hydra a serpent-like monster
cronos a Titan who is the father of Zeus,Hades,Poseidon,Hera, and Demeter; ate his children
sirens a creature half bird and half woman who lured sailors to destruction by the sweetness of her song
Scylla Scylla is a six-headed monster who, when ships pass, swallows one sailor for each head
Charybdis Charybdis is an enormous whirlpool that threatens to swallow the entire ship
lotus eaters people who feed odysseys crew lotus so they wouldnt want to leave
calypso attempts to keep the fabled Greek hero Odysseus on her island to make him her immortal husband
golden apple party Paris Gave a golden apple to Athena in return for her to make Helen fall in love with him. This started the Trojan War because she was already married
the Trojan war ten year war that occurred in ancient Greece
Created by: abby f.