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India/China Test

India and China Test

QuestionAnswer
Who are the untouchables and explain what roles/jobs they have in Indian society? caste-less people in Hindu society that have the lowest jobs that no one wants (i.e. untouchables); determines who they marry and what jobs they have; their ancient system still has influence on modern India despite it being illegal
What religion is the most practiced in India? Hinduism
What is the most common spoken language in India? Hindi
When and why did the British colonize India? In 1858, direct rule established by British - wanted their natural resources like tea/cotton and a market for British goods
What caused Nationalism to develop in India? Indians felt like 2nd class citizens in their own country; the best everything went to the British. Indians were not allowed to run traditional businesses many times.
Why were there two separate national identities in India? Because there were two main religious groups in India - Hindu and Islam
Explain the importance of the Rowlatt Act. Gave Britain power to send Indians to jail up to 2 years without a trial - this led to British having more control over the lives of the Indians and further upset Indians
Explain the importance of the Amristar Massacre. British opened fire on large gathering of Indians who they stated were meeting illegally - 400 killed and 1200 wounded; Indians were furious and this united a call for complete independence from Britain by Indians
Who was Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi? A lawyer who used boycotts and civil disobedience to urge for independence from Britain
What does Gandhi's name mean? "Great Soul"
Explain boycotting and civil disobedience. Boycotting is a refusal to buy goods or services; civil disobedience is the non-violent refusal to obey unfair laws
How did boycotting and civil disobedience affect India's independence movement? Both hurt Britain's economy and by 1935 Britain was gradually giving up its claims on India and this led to eventual self-rule and independence after WWII
Why was Gandhi important to India's history? His means of protest gradually wore Britain down and led to independence for India; he is one of the most important individuals in the story of Indian nationalism
Name the two organizations that fought for independence from the British. What groups did each organization represent? Indian National Congress represented Hindus and Muslim League represented Indians who followed Islam
How was India divided in 1947? India was divided because Hindus and Muslims could not decide on how to organize or rule it after independence; it was divided into India (Hindus) and West and East Pakistan which later became Pakistan and Bangladesh (Muslims)
How did religion affect he split of India in 1947? Hindus and Muslims could not decide on how to rule or organize India so the country was split into 3 parts (India, W and E Pakistan)
What two modern day countries were created due to the split in India? Pakistan and Bangladesh
What part of India's economy is growing the fastest? IT/Technology and service industry
What is Bollywood? Film Industry of India (like Hollywood)
What is India's currency? Rupee
What type of economic system does India have? Mixed
What type of government does India have? Federal Parliamentary Republic
What is the title of India's leader? Prime Minister
What rights do citizens have in India? all the same basic rights
What is the Panchayat System? Local power is in the hands of village councils in India. Each village council (panchayat) is part of larger group of villages and then these groups belong to district council.
What is China's form of government? Communist - single party controls state-owned means of production with the aim of a classless society
What was the Long March? Mao and his 600,000 communist followers fled to the mountains to escape defeat by Nationalist government - walked 6,000 miles to avoid capture - sign of Mao's dedication to his communist cause and the Chinese people
What happened at Tiananmen Square in 1989? 10,000 students protested as they wanted democracy for China; arrests were made and the government shot into the crowd to break up the uprising - this led to the uprising being put down by the government
Who was Deng Xiaoping? leader who replaced Mao Zedong when he died in 1976; he was more moderate leader who allowed more freedoms for Chinese people eventually
Who was the first communist leader in China? Mao Zedong
What did Mao Zedong do while in power? Mao reorganized China's land into collective farms/factories, private ownership eliminated and productivity quotas set in agriculture and industry; Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution were established as programs as he wanted a classless society.
Who was Sun-Yat-sen? He was the leader of the Nationalist Party that overthrew the Qing Dynasty, an absolute monarchy, in 1912. Their aim was to end foreign control in China's affairs.
What was the purpose of the Cultural Revolution? In 1966, its aim was a classless society - students were encouraged to leave school and make war on everything in Chinese society that looked like it encouraged class differences - lasted 10 years.
What happened during the Cultural Revolution? It targeted customs, habits, cultures and thinking of China in order to make war on anything that "created" class system within China.
Was the Cultural Revolution a success? No, it was a failure and mistake - ended 10 years later.
Who holds the "real power" in China's government? Chinese Communist Party
Who were the Red Guards? An array of high school students whose job was to single out and remove anyone who was preventing China from becoming a classless society.
Why did the Qing Dynasty end? Nationalism had grown in China - Qing Dynasty was overthrown by Nationalist Party.
What are monsoons? Seasonal winds that blow hot, dry air across the continent and bring heavy rains during the Spring and Summer which can lead to flooding and destruction.
How do monsoons affect India? Monsoons are helpful in bringing necessary rainfall to improve agriculture but when unpredictable, can cause flooding and destruction for India.
Created by: darcymcfarlane
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