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Management

QuestionAnswer
1-8-1 Fayol's ideas regarding management, especially as it pertains to organizing a) Judiciously prepare and execute the operating plan. b) Organize the human and material facets so that they are consistent with objectives,
1-8-2 What are the steps of the organizing process? a) reflect on plans and objectives, b) establish major tasks, divide major tasks into subtasks, c) allocate resources and directives for subtasks, and d) evaluate the results of implemented organizing strategy
1-8-3 Discuss Weber’s ideas on management systems. a) Detailed procedures and rules b) Clearly outlined organizational hierarchy c) Impersonal relationships among organization members
1-8-4 Discuss Mary Parker Follett’s guidelines on coordination. a) Peer discussion resolves problems b) Planned by managers c) Maintaining Coordination is continuing process
1-8-5 a) Formal- Represented on organization chart, as the relationships among organizational resources as outlined by management; formal structure is represented primarily by the organization chart. In contrast,
1-8-5 Informal- - Evolves naturally, spontaneously, patterns of relationships that develop because of the informal activities of organization members. It evolves naturally and tends to be shaped by individual norms and values and social relationships
1-8-5 Vertical Dimensioning the extent to which an organization uses vertical levels to separate job responsibilities
1-8-6 Discuss management span of control. a) the span of management has a significant effect on how well managers carry out their responsibilities. Span of management is also called span of control, span of authority, span of supervision, and span of responsibility.
1-8-7 importance of the organizational chart, and what it says about the organization. a) the greater the height of the organization chart, the smaller the span of management, and the lower the height of the chart, the greater the span of management
9-1-1 Discuss “responsibility” and its relationship with job description Responsibility- is the obligation to perform assigned activities.
9-2-2 Discuss how managers divide job activities of individuals within organizations, and problems that might occur. a) One of the two may perform the job. The other may either forget to or choose not to do the job—and neither of these is a desirable outcome for product quality control.
9-3-1 Discuss the benefits of clarifying job activities. - is a tool that is used to clarify the responsibilities of various managers in the organization.
11-1-1 Discuss the principles of changing an organization. a) The Process involves modifying an existing organization to increase organizational effectiveness
11-2-1 What are some factors to consider when changing an organization? a) Change Agent-can be internal or external b) Determining What Should be Changed c) The Kind of Change to Make d) Consider Individuals Affected by the Change e) Evaluation of the Change after the fact to see if your are getting anticipated results
11-3. What are the factors to consider when changing an organization a) Most important factor b) Individual/individuals inside/outside organization who work to modify and implement the change c) Requires skills to solve change-related problems
11-4-1 Discuss the various types of changes. Resistance to Change a) Fear of personal loss b) Reduction in personal prestige c) Disturbance of established social and working relationships d) Personal failure
12-1-1 What skills do executives primarily look for in potential employees. a) Oral and written communication skills b) Interpersonal skills
12-2-1 What does the term influencing mean in terms of the management function, and what activities does it entail? a) is the process of guiding the activities of organization members in appropriate directions.
12-3-1 Discuss how communication works, as well as the various roles in the communication process. a) Process of sharing information with individuals b) One person projecting a message to one or more other people with hopefully all parties involved arriving at a common understanding of the message that was sent
12-4-1 Discuss the barriers to organizational communication. Macro Barriers a) Increasing need for complex information b) Increasing number of languages needed c) Decreased time available for communication
13-1-1 Define the term, “leadership.” a) is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of objectives.
13-2-1 What does “leading” primarily focus on? a) leading emphasizes mainly behavioral issues.
13-3-1 Discuss the early approaches to leadership. a) Situational Approach- is based on the assumption that each instance of leadership is different and therefore requires a unique combination of leaders, followers, and leadership situations.
13-4-1 Path-Goal Theory a) suggests that the primary activities of a leader are to make desirable and achievable rewards available to organization members who attain organizational goals and to clarify the kinds of behavior that must be performed to earn those rewards.
13-5-1 Discuss the OSU studies and the results of the studies. a) Structure Behavior b) Establishing well-defined procedures c) Consideration Behavior d) Developing and maintaining a good relationship e) Reflects friendship, mutual trust, respect, warmth f) Lore International Institute
13-6-1 Discuss the Michigan studies and the results of the studies. a) Job-Centered Behavior—focused on the work b) Employee-Centered Behavior—focused on people 2 primary dimensionsr: c) Work Dimension d) People Dimension
13-7-1 Discuss the more recent approaches to leadership. a) Situational Approach -Each instance of leadership is different and requires a unique combination of leaders, followers, and leadership situations b) Life Cycle Theory
13-7-1 Basic premise: i) Leader outlines goals for followers ii) Leader clears path that followers should take iii) Followers achieve goals and earn rewards contingent on doing so
14-1) Discuss the various theories of motivation. Process Theories: a) Emphasize how individuals are motivated Content Theories: a) Emphasize individual’s internal characteristics
14-2) Discuss the various types of rewards employees receive. a) Flex time b) Monetary Incentives c) Non-monetary Incentives
14-3-1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the various levels. a) Physiological Need-Food, water, shelter, rest, sex, air
14-3-2 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the various levels. b)Security/Social Need-Free from harm, including bodily and economic disaster
14-3-3 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the various levels. c) Social Need-Desire for love, companionship, friendship
14-3-4 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the various levels. d) Esteem Need-Desire for respect
14-3-5 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the various levels. e) Self-Actualization Need-Desire to maximize whatever potential individual possesses
1-8-2 Fayol's ideas regarding management, especially as it pertains to organizing c) Establish a single competent, energetic guiding authority (formal management structure). d) Coordinate all activities and efforts. e) Formulate clear, distinct, and precise decisions
1-8-3 Fayol's ideas regarding management, especially as it pertains to organizing f) Arrange for efficient selection so that each department is headed by a competent, energetic manager, and all employees are placed where they can render the greatest service. g) Define duties. h) Encourage initiative and responsibility.
1-8-4 Fayol's ideas regarding management, especially as it pertains to organizing i) Offer fair and suitable rewards for services rendered. j) Make use of sanctions against faults and errors. k) Maintain discipline. l) Ensure that individual interests are consistent with the general interests of the organization.
1-8-5 Fayol's ideas regarding management, especially as it pertains to organizing m) Recognize the unity of command. n) Promote both material and human coordination. o) Institute and effect controls. p) Avoid regulations, red tape, and paperwork.
1-8-7 importance of the organizational chart, and what it says about the organization. b) Organization charts with little height are usually referred to as flat, whereas those with much height are usually referred to as tall.
9-1-2 Discuss “responsibility” and its relationship with job description Job Description- is a list of specific activities that must be performed to accomplish some task or job.
9-2-3 Discuss how managers divide job activities of individuals within organizations, and problems that might occur. b) Both employees may perform the job. At the least, this situation results in duplicated effort, which dampens employee morale. At worst, one employee may diminish the value of the other employee’s work, resulting in a decrement in product quality.
9-2-4 Discuss how managers divide job activities of individuals within organizations, and problems that might occur. c) Neither employee may perform the job because each assumed the other would do it.
9-2-5 Discuss how managers divide job activities of individuals within organizations, and problems that might occur. employees may spend valuable time negotiating each aspect phase of the job to carefully mesh their job responsibilities, thus minimizing both duplication of effort and responsibility gaps.
9-3-2 Discuss the benefits of clarifying job activities. a) Helps management describe responsibility relationships in the organization
9-3-3 Discuss the benefits of clarifying job activities. Responsible Managers- Managers are deemed responsible when they perform activities they are obligated to perform
11-1-2 Discuss the principles of changing an organization. b) Need to stay competitive in global environment: customer needs, structural change (centralization, policies, defining jobs) technology changes for efficiency, etc.
11-4-2 Discuss the various types of changes. Reducing Resistance e) Avoid surprises—Let employees know what is going on. f) Promote genuine understanding g) Set the stage for change—Tell employees why the change is necessary and how it will help the organization
11-4-3 Discuss the various types of changes. a) Bodily strain individual experiences as a result of coping with some environmental factor b) Wear and tear on the body
11-4-4 Discuss the various types of changes. c) Body’s subconscious mobilization of energy when employee is confronted with new organizational or work demands d) Stress costs companies $150B per year
12-2-2 What does the term influencing mean in terms of the management function, and what activities does it entail? b) Appropriate directions, of course, are those that lead to the attainment of management system objectives.
12-2-3 What does the term influencing mean in terms of the management function, and what activities does it entail? c) Influencing is a critical part of a manager’s job; in fact, the ability to influence others is a primary determinant of a successful manager
12-3-2 Discuss how communication works, as well as the various roles in the communication process. Three basic elements: a) Source/Encoder • Source determines information to share, • Encodes that message, b) Signal • Transmits message to c) Decoder/Destination • Destination, Destination • decodes the message
12-4-2 Discuss the barriers to organizational communication. Micro Barriers a) Message interference b) Destination’s view of the source c) Perception d) Multimeaning words
13-3-2 Discuss the early approaches to leadership. b) Life Cycle Theory- is a rationale for linking leadership styles with various situations to ensure effective leadership
13-3-3 Discuss the early approaches to leadership. c) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory- leader–member relations,27 task structure, and the position power of the leader are the three primary factors that should be considered when moving leaders into situations appropriate for their leadership styles:
13-4-2 Path-Goal Theory b) Leader outlines goals for followers c) Leader clears path that followers should take d) Followers achieve goals and earn rewards contingent on doing so
13-4-3 Path-Goal Theory e) Managers can facilitate job performance by showing employees how their performance directly affects receiving desired results f) Directive Behavior-Telling followers what to do and how to do it
13-4-4 Path-Goal Theory g) Supportive Behavior-Being friendly with followers and showing interest in them as human beings
13-4-5 Path-Goal Theory g) Supportive Behavior-Being friendly with followers and showing interest in them as human beings
13-4-5 Path-Goal Theory h) Participative Behavior-Seek suggestions from followers regarding business operations to the extent followers are involved in making important organizational decisions
13-4-6 Path-Goal Theory i) Achievement Behavior-Setting challenging goals for followers to reach and expressing/demonstrating confidence they measure up to the challenge
Created by: ninazzz15