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Xray Pharmacology

Ch 15 Pharmacology

Define Drug a chemical agent capable of producing biological responses in the body.
Define Medication After a drug is administered it is called a medication.
biological agent naturally produced in animal cells, microorganisms, or by the body itself, such as hormones, natural blood products or vaccines.
Define Alternative therapies include natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements, and therapeutic techniques that maybe considered unconventional such as accupuncture.
Define Trade name copyrighted; begins with capitol letter; assigned to drug by manufacturer (same Drug can have different trade names).
Define Generic name begins with lowercase letter; given before official approval of use; it remains the same.
Define PHARMACOKINETICS The processes that control absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs by the Body.
Define Drug Absorption The amount of time needed to absorb a drug and the extent to which it becomes bioavailable.
Define Bioavailable amount that reaches systemic circulation.
Define First pass effect The partial metabolism of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Define enterohepatic recycling allows drug to remain in the body for long periods of time. The drug moves from the liver to biliary tract where it is excreted in bile, returned back to the small intestine, and then back to the bloodstream.
Define Biotransformation/Metabolism The process by which the body alters the chemical structure of a drug or other foreign substance…This process reduces fat solubility to make the drug ready for excretion.
Define Drug Excretion Excretion of drugs take place mainly in the kidneys but only water-soluble substances; therefore Drug metabolism must transform fat soluble into water soluble form.
Define Half life the time it takes for a 50% decrease in a drug's presence in the body. This is determined by the time it take a drug to transform into water soluble form and be eliminated from the body.
Define Clearance rate a drug's removal from the body.
Define PHARMACODYNAMICS The study of the method or mechanism of drug action on living tissues or the response of tissues to chemical agents at various sites in the body
Define Affinity attraction for a particular drug (in reference to drug receptors). Note: Molecular structure of a drug determines a drug's affinity for a particular site.
Efficacy of a drug is the capacity or power to produce a desired effect.
Define Agonist a drug that has an affinity to a site and has the ability to initiate a chain of events (intrinsic) to produce activity at that site.
Define Antagonist a drug that attaches to a site and prevents the agonist from responding in its intended manner.
Define Therapeutic index The relation between the dosage to produce an intended effect versus the amount that produces an unwanted effect.
Define Side effect when an unintended effect is expected to occur and is essentially not harmful.
Define Adverse reaction an effect that is harmful.
Define Toxic reaction an unwanted effect as a result of an extension of the therapeutic dose
Drug Idiosyncrasy unexpected or exacerbated effect.
Define Drug tolerance when a drug received continually for a length of time creates a change in the response to that drug.
Define Drug Classification Drug grouping based on physiologic effects on receptors, physiologic effects on specific body systems, or overall physiologic effects.
What are Glucocorticoids and an example? used for replacement therapy; relief of inflammatory symptoms; for severe allergic reactions; stress relief from trauma. Example: Cortef (hydrocortisone) which is a short acting agent.
Who da Boss? You da Boss!
What is biologic? Naturally produced in animal cells, microorganisms and the body
What are some biologics? Hormones, natural blood products, vaccines
Therapeutic techniques are considered unconventional but include? Natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, even acupuncture
Is venipuncture within a radiographer’s scope of practice? Yes, but not to dispense drugs
Things a radiographer is expected to know about crash cart. Location, how to get into it, how to summon emergency team, maintain drugs and equipment on crash cart
Things a radiographer must know about drugs? Safe dosage, route of administration, drug limitation, side-effects, adverse and toxic reactions, hazards of any drug incorrectly or unsafely administered
If drug administration error occurs who is responsible? Person that administered drug
A drug error is documented a _________ for facility and college. -incident report
What types of drugs cannot be dispensed w/o an Rx per federal law? Parenterally administered drugs, hypnotic or narcotic, habit-forming substances, new or limited to trial drugs
Is an OTC drug considered safe for self-administration? -yes
What drug information is important to obtain when taking patient history? OTC, dietary and herbal supplements
Where do drugs come from? natural and synthetic sources
Name a drug that comes from animal sources Heparin & hormones
Name a drug that comes from Plant sources Digitalis & atropine
Name a drug that comes from micro-organisms Antibiotics
Name a drug that comes from Genetically engineered drugs synthetic human insulin
What is trade name and how is it recognized? Trade name is copyrighted and assigned by manufacturer, begins w/capital letter
What is a chemical name? Chemical formula, remains same, not important
A radiographer is involved in administering drugs for what two reasons? Diagnosis (contrast) & relieve anxiety or pain before or during diagnostic procedure
Where do we obtain reliable information about drugs before administering them? Physicians desk reference
What is Pharmacokinetics? Process that controls absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of drugs by the body
Drugs are processed differently depending on? Age, nutritional status, ethnicity, existing pathiological condition, immune status, psychological factors, sex, weight, environmental factors, time of day
Drug absorption depends on what? Route of admin, GI motility, dose form, interaction with food or w/other drugs, person to person variability, amount of blood flow, size & surface area available for absorption, emotional state, age $ 1st pass effect.
What are the paths for a drug? Orally – swallowed into stomach, small intestine – mesenteric vascular system, portal vein- liver systemic circulation
Drugs taken orally require ______doses why those given parenterally require ________ doses. Larger, smaller
What happens after the body absorbs the drug? It is distributed to it’s intended site by way of circulatory system
The rate and extent of distribution is dependent on? Blood circulation, protein bindings, blood supply of organs, muscle and fatty tissue are reach slower, pathological condition can impede distribution
What organs have a lot of blood supply? Heart, liver, kidneys
What is the process by which the body alters chemical structure of a drug or foreign substance? Biotransformation or Metabolism
Where are most drugs metabolized? Liver
What are some things that alter drug metabolism? Age, health, time of day, emotional status, other drugs in system, generic variations, disease states (liver or heart disease reduce rate of absorption)
What are the differences in metabolism for an adult and infant? -Infant- immature liver, elderly- decreased blood supply &liver enzymes (reduces metabolism)
Where does drug excretion take place MAINLY? Water-soluble substances in the kidneys, metabolism must transform fat soluble into water soluble form
Where else does drug excretion take place? Biliary tract and into feces, Enterohepatic cycle and then kidneys, pulmonary route through lungs (anesthesia)
The time it takes for a 50% decrease in a drugs presence, time it takes a drug to transform into water soluble form and be eliminated from the body is called? -half-life
Who determines the amount of drug needed to maintain a steady state and achieve its effect? A physician
If a drug has a rapid clearance rate is it given to a patient more or less frequently? -more frequently, since it is being eliminated more rapidly
What is the study of the method or mechanism of drug action on living tissues or response of tissues to chemical agents? pharmacodynamics
Drugs can alter what? BP, heart rate, urinary output, function of CNS or PNS and changes in other body systems
If the targeted site by the drug is affected are the rest of the body tissues affected by the drug? Yes, in some way
What is intended by drug therapy? Control pain, cure disease, alleviate symptoms of disease, diagnose disease
What is a drug receptor? Particular area which a drug is intended
What determines a drugs affinity for a particular site? Molecular structure of the drug
What is the relation between dosage to produce an intended effect versus the amount that produces an unwanted effect is called? Therapeutic index
If the therapeutic index is greater the safer the drug because____________? It can be tolerated better w/o adverse effects
What are some special considerations for pregnant women receiving drugs? Some drugs cross placenta, avoid drugs if pregnant, inform MD before administering drug to pregnant person
What are some special considerations for breast fed infants and drugs? Drugs could transfer from nursing mother, breast feeding discontinued for radiation use
What are some considerations for infants and drug use? Lack protective mechanism, temp control poor, immature liver & kidneys that can’t handle foreign chemicals, need educated person to administer
What are some special considerations for Pediatrics? 1yr and older- physiologic differences, dose depends on weight, topical drugs can be poisoning, educated person to administer
What are some special considerations for the elderly for drugs? Multiple issues, drugs that affect CNS & cardiovascular system use extreme caution, closely monitor patients
What is an example of physiologic effect on receptors and body systems? Drugs that affect serotonin receptors – Prozac, drugs that treat indigestion – antacids
What are Adrenergic drugs and an example? Constrict blood vessels & stimulate the heart used for cardiovascular, respiratory and allergic emergences
Adrenergic drugs give an example? Adrenalin chloride or epinephrine- for cardiac arrest, acute asthma, hay fever
What are Adrenergic blocking agents and an example? Cause increased peripheral circulation and decrease blood pressure
Adrenergic blocking agents give an example? Inderal or propanolol- cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarct, hypertension
What are Antimuscarinic drugs and an example? Increase cardiac output constrict blood vessels, decrease saliva & bronchial secretions. Example: Atopine or atropine sulfate- bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia
What are Calcium channel blockers and an example? reduce calcium flow to heart & relax smooth muscle tone and reduce. EXAMPLE: Calan or verapamil hydrochloride- treat angina, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension
What are Antiarrhythmics and an example? Correct arrhythmias of the heart due to electrical abnormalities. Example: Xylocaine or lidocaine- ventricular arrhythmias, local anesthetic
What are diuretics and an example? Reduce blood volume through urinary output of water to treat hypertension. Example: Lasix or furosemide- treat hypertension, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure
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