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Advanced pharm final

QuestionAnswer
Aspirin interactions (2) NSAIDs ibuprofen & warfarin
Aspirin complications (4) NSAIDs GI effects, bleeding, Reye's syndrome, & salicylism
Ibuprofen & celecoxib complications (3) Non-aspirin NSAIDs GI irritation, increased risk for myocardial infarction, & impaired kidney function
Acetaminophen uses (2) pain & fever reliever
Acetaminophen complication (1) acetaminophen overdose
Tramadol complications (6) sedation, dizziness, seizures, respiratory depression, nausea, & constipation
Butorphanol complications (6) Opioid agonist-antagonist abstinence syndrome, headache, nausea, dizziness, respiratory depression, & sedation
Butorphanol contraindication (1) Opioid agonist-antagonist physical dependence on opioids
Naltrexone use (1) Opioid antagonists severe opioid-induced constipation
Naloxone use (1) Opioid antagonists opioid overdose
Naltrexone & naloxone complications (4) Opioid antagonists tachycardia, tachypnea, increased pain, & abstinence syndrome
Allopurinol use (1) Uricosurics hyperuricemia
Dexamethasone interaction (1) Glucocorticoids furosemide
Dexamethasone complications (6) Glucocorticoids peptic ulcer disease, GI discomfort, fluid/electrolyte imbalances, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, & infection
Dexamethasone administration considerations (2) Glucocorticoids taper drug, let the patient know they'll be really hungry at first but that'll go away with time
Zolpidem complication (1) Non-benzodiazepines memory impairment (r/t complex sleep behaviors)
Baclofen complications (2) Centrally-acting muscle relaxants CNS depression & seizures
Valporic acid complications (5) Anti-epileptics drowsiness, sedation, headache, rash (Steven-Johnson's syndrome), & hepatotoxicity (jaundice & abdominal pain)
Phenytoin patient instructions (3) Hydantoins use a soft-bristle toothbrush, report rashes, & don't drive if CNS effects occur
Midazolam therapeutic effect (1) Anesthesia support muscle relaxant
Ritalin & Adderall action (2) CNS stimulant used to treat ADHD & narcolepsy by increasing focus
Ritalin & Adderall complications (3) CNS stimulant CNS stimulation, cardiovascular effects, & weight loss
Modafinil administration considerations (1) Non-amphetamines it's for narcolepsy, so take it in the morning so it can have the effect all day
Carbidopa-levodopa action (1) Anti-Parkinson's produces dopamine
Carbidopa-levodopa complications (2) Anti-Parkinson's nausea & orthostatic hypotension
Xanax complications (6) Benzodiazepines CNS depression, respiratory depression, anxiety, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, & amnesiac effects
Amitriptyline complications (3) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) orthostatic hypotension, sedation, & anticholinergic effects
Amitriptyline administration considerations (1) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can take 2-3 weeks to work
Fluoxetine/Venlafaxine use (1) SSRIs/SNRIs anxiety
Fluoxetine/Venlafaxine complications (4) SSRIs/SNRIs decreased libido, weight changes, serotonin syndrome, & increased risk for suicide
Phenelzine sulfate complications (2) MAOIs HTN & hypertensive crisis
Bupropion XL use (3) Atypical antidepressants depression, smoking cessation, & seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Lithium carbonate use (1) Mood stabilizer bipolar disorder
Lithium carbonate interactions (2) Mood stabilizer NSAIDs & LASIX
Chlorpromazine/Risperidone use (1) Antipsychotics schizophrenia
Chlorpromazine complications (5) Antipsychotics extrapyramidal symptoms, acute dystonia, photosensitivity, anticholinergic effects, & hypotension
Risperidone complications (3) Antipsychotics dyslipidemia, extrapyramidal symptoms, & seizures
Betaxolol/Timolol use (1) Beta Blocker glaucoma
Betaxolol/Timolol complications (2) Beta Blocker ocular stinging & bradycardia
Insulin complications (2) hypoglycemia & lipohypertrophy
Glargine (Lantus) Long-acting insulin onset, peak, & duration onset: 70 mins no peak duration: 24 hrs
NPH (Humulin/Novolin) Intermediate-acting insulin onset, peak, & duration onset: 1-2 hr peak: 6-14 hr duration: 16-24 hr
Regular (Humulin/Novolin) Short-acting insulin onset, peak, & duration onset: 30 mins peak: 1-5 hr duration: 6-10 hr
Lispro (aspart/glulisine & Humalog/Novolog) Rapid-acting insulin onset, peak, & duration onset: 15 min peak: .5-2.5 hr duration: 3-6 hr
Exenatide associated lab (1) Incretin mimetics A1C blood sugar test
Glucotrol XL use (1) Sulfonylureas type 2 diabetes
Glucotrol XL complication (1) Sulfonylureas hypoglycemia
Repaglinide administration considerations (1) Meglitinides take no more than 30 mins before meals
Metformin complication (1) Biguanides lactic acidosis
Pioglitazone complications (3) Thiazolidinediones fluid retention, lipid level elevation, & hepatotoxicity
Pioglitazone labs (2) Thiazolidinediones liver function tests & lipids lab
Acarbose complications (3) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors hypoglycemia, anemia, & hepatotoxicity
Glucagon uses (2) hypoglycemia & insulin overdose
Levothyroxine use (1) Thyroid replacements hypothyroidism
Levothyroxine complication (1) Thyroid replacements overmedication (hyperthyroidism)
Levothyroxine administration consideration (1) Thyroid replacements take daily on an empty stomach 30-60 mins before breakfast
Levothyroxine associated labs (3) Thyroid replacements TSH, T3, & T4
Propylthiouracil (PTU) uses (2) Antithyroid drug Grave's disease & thyrotoxicosis
Propylthiouracil (PTU) complications (3) Antithyroid drug hypothyroidism, agranulocytosis, & myalgia
Antithyroid drug 131 use (1) thyroid cancer
Antithyroid drug 131 patient instructions (2) allow 2-3 months to reach full effect & increase fluids in 2-3L/day
Somatropin uses (2) Growth hormone Turner's syndrome & Prader-Willis syndrome
Somatropin complications (2) Growth hormone hyperglycemia & hypercalciuria
Somatropin labs (2) Growth hormone blood glucose & urine calcium
Desmopressin use (1) Antidiuretic hormone diabetes insipidus
Desmopressin measurement of effectiveness (2) Antidiuretic hormone BUN/Creatinine & electrolyte labs
Hydrocortisone use (1) Glucocorticoid Addison's disease
Heparin lab & range (1) Parenteral anticoagulants aPTT (60-80 secs)
Difference between heparin & enoxaparin Parenteral anticoagulants enoxaparin is a low-weight heparin whose results are more predictable than heparin
Warfarin action (1) Oral anticoagulants prevents clots by antagonizing vitamin K
Warfarin use (1) Oral anticoagulants prevents strokes in patients with a-fib
Warfarin labs & ranges (2) Oral anticoagulants PT (11-13.5 secs) & INR (2-3)
How long can heparin & warfarin be used together just until warfarin reaches the therapeutic level
Warfarin administration considerations (5) Oral anticoagulants take at the same time each day, avoid foods high in vitamin K, avoid alcohol, avoid acetaminophen, & discontinue 7 days before surgery
Ecotrin complications (3) Salicylics GI effects, GI bleeding, & salicylism
Clopidogrel action (1) ADP inhibitors inhibits platelet aggregation
Clopidogrel complications (2) ADP inhibitors bleeding & thrombocytopenia
Alteplase action & use (2) Thrombolytics dissolves clots that are already formed & used to treat PE & ischemic stroke
Alteplase administration considerations (2) Thrombolytics best if given within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms & patient should be at close observation for bleeding throughout treatment
Ferrous sulfate administration considerations (4) Iron deficiency drugs best not to take oral tablet with meals (but can if absolutely needed) & for liquid meds: dilute with water, drink through a straw (no swish and swallow), & rinse mouth afterwards
Ferrous sulfate expected side effects (1) Iron deficiency drugs expect dark tarry stools (that's ok with this med)
Cyancobalamin uses (2) Vitamin B12 deficiency drug pernicious anemia & vitamin B12 deficiency
Folic acid administration considerations/patient education (2) Folic acid deficiency expect warmth after IV administration & increase foods high in folic acid
Methotrexate complications (4) DMARDS I increased risk for infection, bone marrow suppression, GI ulcers/bleeding, & mouth ulcers
Methotrexate administration considerations (5) DMARDS I take with food, increase fluids, use reliable contraception, avoid alcohol, & take with folic acid
Etanercept complications (4) DMARDS II irritation at injection site, sick for infection, skin rash (Steven-Johnson's syndrome), & heart failure
Raloxifene action (1) SERMs mimics the effect of estrogen on the bone tissue
Raloxifene complications (3) SERMs increased risk for PE, increased risk for DVT, & hot flashes
Raloxifene administration considerations (4) SERMs increase calcium & vitamin D intake, monitor bone density & serum calcium levels, use reliable contraception, & increase weight-bearing activities
Alendronate action (1) Bisphosphonates increases bone mass by decreasing osteoclast activity
Alendronate complications (4) Bisphosphonates esophagitis, musculoskeletal pain, visual disturbances (blurred vision), & jaw pain
Alendronate administration considerations (3) Bisphosphonates take 1st thing in the morning on an empty stomach, remain upright for 30 mins, & increase weight-bearing activity
Calcitonin action (1) increases calcium excretion
Calcitonin complications (3) hypersensitivity, hypocalcemia, & nasal irritation
Calcitonin administration considerations (4) don't give to a patient with a salmon allergy, for intranasal: hold pump upright, prime the pump, & alternate nostrils
Calcium supplements action (1) raises calcium levels
Calcium supplements complications (2) hypercalcemia & kidney stones
Calcium supplements administration considerations (4) take 1 hr apart from glucocorticoids, take 1 hr after meals, take with 8oz of water, & take no more than 600mg in a dose
Calcium supplements lab & range (1) serum calcium lab 9-10.5
Succinylcholine complications (3) Neuromuscular blocking agents hyperkalemia, respiratory arrest, & malignant hyperthermia
Influenza vaccine contraindications (4) sensitivity to eggs, anaphylactic reaction to previous vaccines, severe febrile illness, & immunocompromised (especially with live vaccines since they'll get the illness)
Varicella vaccine contraindications (2) sensitivity to gelatin or neomycin
MMR vaccine contraindication (1) pregnancy
Immunizations that are safe to administer during pregnancy (2) Tdap & influenza
Acetaminophen antidote Acetadote
Morphine antidote naloxone
Insulin antidote glucagon
Heparin antidote protamine
Warfarin antidote vitamin K
Alteplase antidote aminocaproic acid (Amicar)
Neostigmine antidote atropine (AtroPen)
Temazepam antidote (same as Xanax) flumazenil
Xanax (alprazolam) antidote (same as Temazepam) flumazenil
A patient beginning therapy with etanercept should be tested specifically for which 2 disorders? HepB & TB
What are administration considerations for a patient who is prescribed 1500mg of calcium carbonate per day (4)? Divide each dose into less than 600mg (so 3 doses of 500mg) Chew tablets before swallowing Take within 1 hour apart from other meds (bc it’s an antacid & it decreases the absorption of other meds) Drink at least 8oz of water with it
Which vaccines would be recommended for a 4-year-old child? (5) Dr. Hip DTaP, RV, Hib, IPV, & PCV
Heparin lab PTT
Warfarin lab PT
Oprelvekin lab platelets
Filgrastim lab WBC
Epoetin alfa lab Hmg/Hmt
At what ages is it recommended for an infant to receive the Hep B vaccine? (3) birth, 2 months, & 6 months
What is the normal lab value range for serum calcium levels? 9-10.5
Onset for aspart 15-30 mins
Onset for regular insulin 30-60 min
Onset for NPH 6-14 hr
Onset for glargine 1.5-2 hr (70 mins usually)
Betaxolol is used to treat... glaucoma
Bupropion is used to treat... depression
Lithium is used to treat... bipolar disorder
Risperidone is used to treat... schizophrenia
What are the adverse effects associated with giving naloxone for a morphine overdose? (2) respiratory depression & sedation
What are 2 complications associated with butorphanol? HTN & respiratory depression
Which vaccines are safe to administer during pregnancy? influenza & Tdap
Which adverse effects would you monitor in a patient receiving clopidogrel? (4) bleeding, weakness, vision changes, & thrombocytopenia
What is the primary complication associated with Ambien (or zolpidem)? memory loss r/t sleep-related complex behaviors
What are administration considerations when educating about levothyroxine? (2) therapy is life-long & take it at the same time each day
Which time frame is alteplase most effective when given? within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms
What is allopurinol used to treat? gout & hyperuricemia r/t to gout and chemotherapy
What is the antidote for neostigmine? atropine (AtroPen)
What is the best time of day for a patient to receive Provigil (modafinil)? in the morning since it's used for narcolepsy, so it can work throughout the day
What would a nurse monitor to determine the effectiveness of desmopressin? urine output
Which vaccine is a contraindication for a patient with an allergy to eggs? influenza
What is the antidote for acetaminophen? acetylcysteine or Acetadote
What is the antidote for heparin? protamine
What is the antidote for benzos? flumazenil
True or False: A patient who takes alendronate should lie flat following administration. false, they should remain upright for 30 mins
What is the antidote for insulin? glucagon
True or false: The influenza vaccine composition changes yearly. true, to predict the strain of virus for that year
True or false: Acetaminophen can reduce fever, relieve mild pain, & reduce inflammation. false, it is a pain and fever reliever, but it doesn’t reduce inflammation
True or false: A complication related to antidepressants is suicidal thoughts. true
True or false: Heparin and warfarin can never be used together. false, they can be used together until warfarin reaches its therapeutic level
True or false: Lactic acidosis is an adverse reaction associated with metformin. true
GI effects, bleeding, Reye's syndrome, & salicylism Aspirin complications (4) NSAIDs
GI irritation, increased risk for myocardial infarction, & impaired kidney function Ibuprofen & celecoxib complications (3) Non-aspirin NSAIDs
acetaminophen overdose Acetaminophen complication (1)
sedation, dizziness, seizures, respiratory depression, nausea, & constipation Tramadol complications (6)
abstinence syndrome, headache, nausea, dizziness, respiratory depression, & sedation Butorphanol complications (6) Opioid agonist-antagonist
tachycardia, tachypnea, increased pain, & abstinence syndrome Naltrexone & naloxone complications (4) Opioid antagonists
peptic ulcer disease, GI discomfort, fluid/electrolyte imbalances, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, & infection Dexamethasone complications (6) Glucocorticoids
memory impairment (r/t complex sleep behaviors) Zolpidem complication (1) Non-benzodiazepines
CNS depression & seizures Baclofen complications (2) Centrally-acting muscle relaxants
drowsiness, sedation, headache, rash (Steven-Johnson's syndrome), & hepatotoxicity (jaundice & abdominal pain) Valporic acid complications (5) Anti-epileptics
CNS stimulation, cardiovascular effects, & weight loss Ritalin & Adderall complications (3) CNS stimulant
nausea & orthostatic hypotension Carbidopa-levodopa complications (2) Anti-Parkinson's
CNS depression, respiratory depression, anxiety, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, & amnesiac effects Xanax complications (6) Benzodiazepines
orthostatic hypotension, sedation, & anticholinergic effects Amitriptyline complications (3) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
decreased libido, weight changes, serotonin syndrome, & increased risk for suicide Fluoxetine/Venlafaxine complications (4) SSRIs/SNRIs
HTN & hypertensive crisis Phenelzine sulfate complications (2) MAOIs
extrapyramidal symptoms, acute dystonia, photosensitivity, anticholinergic effects, & hypotension Chlorpromazine complications (5) Antipsychotics
dyslipidemia, extrapyramidal symptoms, & seizures Risperidone complications (3) Antipsychotics
ocular stinging & bradycardia Betaxolol/Timolol complications (2) Beta Blocker
hypoglycemia & lipohypertrophy Insulin complications (2)
hypoglycemia Glucotrol XL complication (1) Sulfonylureas
lactic acidosis Metformin complication (1) Biguanides
fluid retention, lipid level elevation, & hepatotoxicity Pioglitazone complications (3) Thiazolidinediones
hypoglycemia, anemia, & hepatotoxicity Acarbose complications (3) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
overmedication (hyperthyroidism) Levothyroxine complication (1) Thyroid replacements
hypothyroidism, agranulocytosis, & myalgia Propylthiouracil (PTU) complications (3) Antithyroid drug
hyperglycemia & hypercalciuria Somatropin complications (2) Growth hormone
GI effects, GI bleeding, & salicylism Ecotrin complications (3) Salicylics
bleeding & thrombocytopenia Clopidogrel complications (2) ADP inhibitors
irritation at injection site, sick for infection, skin rash (Steven-Johnson's syndrome), & heart failure Etanercept complications (4) DMARDS II
increased risk for PE, increased risk for DVT, & hot flashes Raloxifene complications (3) SERMs
esophagitis, musculoskeletal pain, visual disturbances (blurred vision), & jaw pain Alendronate complications (4) Bisphosphonates
hypersensitivity, hypocalcemia, & nasal irritation Calcitonin complications (3)
hypercalcemia & kidney stones Calcium supplements complications (2)
hyperkalemia, respiratory arrest, & malignant hyperthermia Succinylcholine complications (3) Neuromuscular blocking agents
Created by: tiffhales
 

 



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