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Ch.5 Teach & Learn

Teaching and Learning Final Ch.5

Afferent Literally, carrying to; describes the part of the PNS that detects changes in the environment and conducts nerve impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS
Efferent Literally, carrying away from; describes the part of the PNS that transmits impulses away from the CNS to the effectors
Exteroceptors Receptors located at or near the body’s surface that detect stimuli outside the body and provide information about the environment
Interoceptors Receptors that detect stimuli from the internal viscera and provide information about the internal environment
Proprioceptors Receptors that provide information regarding body position and movement by detecting changes in muscle tension, joint position, and equilibrium
Photo receptors Light-sensitive cells located in the eyes
Optic chiasm Point at which some fibers from each of the optic nerves cross, allowing visual signals to be processed by the opposite side of the brain
Focal system Visual system that functions o identify objects primarily located in the central region of the visual field
Ambient system Visual system that functions at a subconscious level and is thought to be responsible for spatial localization and orientation
Spotting Fixating one’s visual attention on a specific spot during rotation of the body in order to reduce dizziness and remain oriented
Fixating Focusing visual attention on a specific object
Optic flow The perceived visual motion of objects as the observer moves relative to them
Feedforward Describes the sending of information ahead of a movement, for advance preparation or adjustments of the movement
Manual aiming The act of reaching or transporting the hand to a target location
Prehension The action of reaching and grasping
Proprioception The continuous flow of sensory information that is received from receptors located in the muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear regarding movement and body position
Golgi tendon organs Proprioceptors located at the junction of a tendon with a muscle that indicate the level of tension development in a tendon
Muscle spindles Proprioceptors located between the skeletal muscle fibers in the muscle belly that indicate how much and how fast the muscle’s length is changing
Joint kinesthetic receptors Receptors located in and around synovial joints that respond to pressure, acceleration and deceleration, and excessive strain on a joint
Vestibular apparatus A collective group of receptor organs in the inner ear that respond to changes in posture and balance
Reflex An automatic, involuntary response to stimuli
Reflex arc The simplest pathway by which a reflex occurs
Interneurons Nerve cell that lies between a sensory and a motor neuron in a reflex arc
Cerebral cortex The outermost layer of the cerebrum
Neural plasticity The ability of the brain to change its organization and ultimately its function throughout the lifespan
Cortical remapping Reorganization of an area(s) in the cortex of the brain resulting in a new cortical map
Memory ability to store and recall information
Sensory memory memory system that retains a brief impression of a sensory stimulus after the original stimulus has ended, allowing determination of whether or not it demands further attention
Working memory A set of interacting information processing components that actively stores and manages information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks
Phonological loop memory system responsible for short term storage of spoken and written material
Visuospatial sketchpad Memory system responsible for the temporary storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information
Central executive Component of working memory that controls the flow of information between the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, regulates information processing, and governs attentional activities
Long-term memory Memory characterized as having a seemingly limitless capacity and duration
Procedural memory memory of how to perform various skills, operation and actions
Declarative memory That portion of our memory used for facts or events; commonly broken down into two types: episodic memory and semantic memory
Episodic memory The memory of personal experiences and events that are associated with a specific time and context
Semantic memory The memory of general knowledge that is developed through experiences but is not associated with time
Proactive Interference interference of old memories with the retention of new ones
Retro-active interference interference of new learning with the retention of older memories
Created by: hfillingim
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