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Chapter 9 glossary

Social Cognition Involves how we interpret, analyse, remember and use information to make judgements about others in different social situations.
Persons perception The mental process we use to form impressions and draw conclusions about the personal characteristics about other people .
The halo effect A cognitive bias which the impression we form about one quality of a person influences our benefits and expectations about the person in other qualities.
Eye contact One of the most influential forms of non-verbal communication. It can help distinguish a persons mood just by looking at their eye contact.
Facial expressions They are to help us show and see other peoples emotions.
Attribution The process by which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behaviour
Personal Attributes An explanation due to the characteristics of the person involved, such as their personality, ability, attitude, motivation, mood or effort.
Situational Attribute an explanation due to factors external to the person involved, such as the actions of another person, some aspects of the environment, the task, luck or fate.
Fundamental attribute error The tendency to overestimate the influence of personal factors
Individualist culture Being and individual and independant is valued and encouraged, and achieving personal goals is considered to be more important than achieving group goals
Collectivist culture Achieving group goals is considered to be more important than the achievement of individual goals, and individuals are encouraged, and sometimes expected to place group goals ahead of their personal goals.
Attitude An evaluation a person makes about an object, person, group, event or issue.
Tri-component model of attitudes Any attitude has three related components - •The affective •Behavioral •Cognitive these are also called the 'ABCs of attitudes'
Affective component Refers to the emotional reactions or feelings an individual has towards an object, person, group, event or issue.
Behavioral component Refers to the way in which an attitude is expressed through our actions.
Cognitive component Refers to the beliefs we have about an object, person, group, event or issue.
Strength of an attitude An attitude that is usually thought about, well-known and easily accessible.
Accessible attitude A strong attitude that easily comes to mind - it has been thought about, is well known and has been stored in memory ready for use.
Perceived control The belief an individual has that they are free to perform or not perform behaviour linked to an attitude and a belief that they can actually perform that behaviour.
Stereotype Collection of benefits that we have about the people who belong to a certain group, regardless of individual differences among members of that group.
Stereotyping The process of grouping people into a category based on what we know about them.
Ingroup Any group that you belong to or identify with
Outgroup Any group you do not belong to or identify with
Prejudice Holding a negative attitude towards the members of a group, based solely on their membership of that group.
Old-fashioned prejudice Form of prejudice in which members of the majority group openly reject minority group members and their views towards the minority group are obvious and recognizable to others.
Modern prejudice Form of prejudice which is more subtle, hidden and expressed in ways more likely to be accepted within the majority group.
Discrimination Positive and negative behaviour that is directed towards a social group and its members.
Direct discrimination When someone is treated unfavorably because of a personal characteristic protected by the law.
Indirect discrimination When treating everybody the same disadvantages someone because of a personal characteristic.
Racism When prejudice and discrimination are directed at people who are members of a particular racial or ethnic group
Sexism When directed at women or men because of their sex
Ageism When directed at people because of their age
Created by: georgia.sampson
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