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TOC exam 3


when is labeling a dependent variable? when explaing why a behavior is wrong and individuals are selected
the outcome is also known as ___ dependent variable
when is labeling an independent variable? when labels are what is causing the problem and perpetuating the delinquent behavior
the cause is also known as ____ independent variable
____ is responsible for the looking glass theory Cooley
what does the theory of looking-glass self mean? we are or we become what others think we are
what is dramatization of evil? communitys dramatized reaction to the breaking of minor laws
________ is the initial acts of norm violation primary deviance
secondary deviance is when the actor ________ realizes label and its effects, and its deviant role
who is responsible for primary and secondary deviance? Edwin Lemert
falsely accused means ___ obedient, perceived as deviant
pure deviant means ____ breaks rules, perceived as deviant
conforming means____ not perceived as deviant, obedient
secret deviant means ____ not perceived as deviant, breaking the rules
what are Becker's typology of delinquents? falsely accused, pure deviant, conforming, secret deviant
what is retrospective interpretation?
what is a master status? labels that transcend all other traits
what distinguishes labeling theory from other theories? labeling has unintended consequences like the person becoming more criminal/deviant
what are the findings of the Schwartz and Scholnick study? any involvement with the CJS seemed to impact the ability to get a job, even if the person was not found guilty
______ is responsible for reintegrative shaming John Braithwaite
what is disintegrative shaming? no work done with offender and society, destroying moral bond between them
what is reintegrative shaming? work done with the offender to cleanse deviance, community condemns crime, not criminal
_____ is the view that society is divided into groups with competeing ideas and values. The group with most power makes laws and controls society conflict theory
informal control is administered by ____ family, friends, church, neighborhood
formal control is administered by___ police and courts
what is the relationship between formal and informal controls? Breakdown in informal control brings an increase in formal control, and informal controls grow out of the need to fill gaps left by weak formal controls
_____ is responsible for group conflict theory George Vold
what crimes are the focus of group conflict theory? Political protests, labor disputes, disputes between & within competing unions, racial & ethnic clashes
what crimes are committed by the lower class against the upper class? accommodation & resistance
what crimes are committed by the ruling class against the lower class? Domination & repression, control, government; Crime of accommodation & Crime of resistance
explains both law & criminal justice, and focuses on the division between ruling-class and laborers Marxist theory
according to Marxists, what are the social classes in society? capitalism
with power, ruling-class elite in a capitalist society bourgeouis
no power, working-class in a capitalist society proletariat
according to Marxist theory, what should happen to imprisonment in times of recession? imprisonment should be high
according to the Marxist theory, what is the purpose of imprisonment? to regulate availability & cost of labor
according to Marxists, what is the reason for conflict? mode of production
according to Marxist, what causes crime? Capitalistic organization of society & economic conditions
a worker that does not recognize their own interests, & think their interests are with the bourgeois false class consciousness
a group that is less expensive, low threat social junk
a group that is expensive, high threat social dynamite
if Marxist theory is true, what type of crime rate do we expect in capitalist societies? In socialist societies? high rate in capitalist, low rate in socialist
according to conflict theorists what groups are most likely to be involved in the criminal justice system for violations of the law? the poor, lower- class, and more disadvantaged group; minorities, poor, young, no power
a movement to do away with current, violent CJS & replace with one of love & non-violence; reduce violence peacemaking criminology
programs used to make the offenders accept responsibility for their actions & restore them, and their victims back to normal restorative justice
perspective that examines a capitalist’s role in the impact, damage, & fear caused by traditional street crime, in the society left realism
criminology & CJ based off of the experiences, understanding, & view of the world perceived by women feminist theory
what are the waves on feminism? mid-1800s, 1960s, 1980s-1990s
which amendment gave women the right to vote? 19th
"male-centered" androcentric
subordinate role of women, and male dominance patriarchy
denotes that women need to be protected for their own good paternalism
pertains to behaviors and attitudes toward certain individuals as if they are “on a pedestal”; good, pure chivalry
what did Otto Pollak believe about women and crime? women have been more criminal in nature than what has generally been perceived
as women become more equal in society with men, their crime rates will increase (Freda Adler) masculinity thesis
as women increase their numbers in corporate America, their rates of white-collar & corporate crime will increase along with increased opportunity opportunity hypothesis
absence of opportunities along w/ pressure to compete equally will lead to increased crime by women economic marginalization hypothesis
what two approaches are often used according to feminist theorists? add women and stir approach, sex role approach
emphasis on the evolution of individuals criminality over time life-course theories
onset when someone begins offending
desistance when someone stops offending
intensisty the degree of seriousness of offeneses
frequency how often an offender offends
what do developmental theorists believe about self-control? it can be changed
what is the difference between transitions and trajectories? transitions are specific events that are important in altering long-term trends in behavior. Trajectories are paths that people take in a long-term sense
explain self-selection versus social learning debate as related to Thornberry’s interactional model self-selection: seeking out delinquent because you are delinquent social Learning: becoming delinquent because you learned from peers that are delinquent
what theories did Thornberry combine when developing interactional model? social control and social learning
what are the two types of offenders explained in Moffitt’s developmental theory or taxonomy? adolescence-limited: engage in criminal activity only during teenage & young adult years life-course persistent: begin offending very early and continue far into adulthood; lowest percentage, but most violent
link between witnessing or being a victim when younger, and becoming criminal as an adult cycle of violence
what are some red flags for whether an individual will become a chronic offender? Fire setting, cruelty to animals, a history of bed-wetting
Created by: laceyg1
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