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RAW Geog - Dist Land

Distinctive Landscapes

Landscapes all the visible features of an area of land
Natural Landscape Landscapes with more physical features such as mountains or forests
Built Landscapes Landscapes with more human features like a town or city
Upland Mostly found in North and West of UK Formed from hard rock which resist erosion such as granite or limestone Often steep land Tends to be cooler and wetter Less human activity
Lowland Mostly found in the south and east Formed from softer rocks like chalk and clay flatter landscapes Most urban areas and industries are located in lowland areas (more human activity) Less rainfall Higher temperatures
Geomorphic Processes Process that changes the shape of a landscape such as erosion or weathering
Mechanical / Physical Weathering When changes in temperature such as freeze-thaw that cause cracks in the rock
Chemical weathering Breakdown of rock through chemical reactions, such as acid rain
Biological Weathering Breakdown of rocks by living things e.g plant roots
Erosion A geomorphic process that occurs along coasts and rivers - There are 4 types
Hydraulic Action A type of erosion. Water crashed against the rock and compresses the air in the cracks causing bits to breaks off
Abrasion A type of erosion. Particles in the water rub against the rock and wear them away
Attrition A type of erosion. Particles in the water smash in to each other and break in to smaller pieces
Solution Type of Erosion.dissolved CO2 makes water slightly acidic the acid reacts with some rocks like chalk and limestone and dissolves them
Transportation the movement of eroded material
Traction Large particles like boulders are pushed along the river bed or sea floor by the force of the river
Suspension Small particles like silt and clay are carried along the water
Saltation Pebble-sized particles are bounced along the river bed or sea floor by the force of the river
Solution Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along
Deposition When material being carried by the sea or river is dropped
Headlands These are usually made of resistant rocks and have weaknesses like cracks.
Headland Erosion Headlands are eroded through hydraulic action and abrasion. Cracks appear which then form a wave cut notch. Repeated erosion forms a cave which deepens forming an arch. Eventually the arch collapses leaving a stack. The stack is eroded in to a stump.
Longshore drift The process of sand and shingle being transported along the coastline to form a spit. Waves follow the prevailing wind. The swash carries the material in the ame direction of the wind and the backwash carries the material back down towards the sea.
Spit Beaches that stick out in to the sea and are formed by longshore drift.
Advance the line New defences further out in sea
Managed retreat / Retreat the line Do not protect the coast but defend further inlans. Homes and habitats are lost
Hold the line Coastal defences are built along the coast line - Expensive but protects homes
Groynes Wooden fences built out in to the sea. A type of hard engineering. Trap material being transported by longshore drift.
Sea walls Concrete walls prevent the erosion of the coast and cliffs. Expensive but long lasting.
Beach Replenishment Shingle and Sand are taken from other areas to add to the beach.
River Basin Area of land surrounding a river where rain fall makes its way to the river.
Watershed The area of high land forming the river basin
Source Where the river begins
Mouth Where the river meets the sea
Tributary A smaller river or stream that joins a larger river
Confluence The point at which 2 rivers meet
Channel Thse is where the river flows
Upper Course Closest to the source of the river - features are V-shaped valleys, waterfalls and gorges, fast flowing water
Waterfalls Are formed where a river flows ovr an area of hard rock followed by an area of softer rock and the water has eroded the soft rock causing a step in the river channel.
V-Shaped Valley These are formed by erosion and are found in the upper course
Meanders These are formed by erosion and deposition. Large bends found in the middle and lower course
Ox-Bow Lakes These are formed from meanders that get larger over time
Floodplain The wide valley floor on eithher side of the river which occastinally gets flooded.
Levees These are natural embankments (raised bits) along the edge of the river channel.
Slip Off Slope These are formed by deposited material on the inside bend (slower current) of a meander
Neck The small bit of land between the two bends of a meander
Plunge Pool These are created when collapsed rocks are swirled around at the bottom of a waterfall and erode the softer rock by abrasion.
Steep Sided Gorge These are formed when undercutting causes rocks to collapse and thewaterfall retreats (moves back up the channel)
Landscape The visible features that make up the surface of the land
Igneous Verty tough, resistant rock such as granite that is formed by cooled lava. Often found in uplands
Sedimentary A weaker rock such as chalk, formed by the build-up of sediment usually at the bottom of the oceans. Mostly found in lowland areas
Metamorphic Tough resistant rock such as slate, often found in uplands. Formed by existing rocks that has changed due to heat and pressure
River cliff These are formed by erosion on the outside bend (faster current) of a meander
Stump A stack that has been eroded over time
Stack Formed by a collapsed arch
Arch Formed by a cave in the headland being eroded all the way through
Cave Formed when a wave cut notch becomes bigger through erosion
Crack This is the beginning of the erosion process of a headland and is a line of weakness in less resistant rock
Deposition When the sea or river loses energy (slower flow) and it drops it load (sand, silt, stones)
Wave cut notch This is formed when a crack is enlarged
Spit A long and narrow patch of san and shingle formed by longshore drift and deposited where the coastline quickly changes direction.
Hard Engineering Coastal Management strategy that consists of sea walls, rock armour and groynes
Soft Engineering A coastal management strategy that includes beach replenishment (moving sand and shingle from another area)
Reservoir A flood defense strategy found in the upper course. A large body of water that is released in a control manner to prevent flooding and supply water to homes and businesses
Barrage A flood defence strategy that protects the lower course from flooding and salt water entering the river
River straigtening A flood defence strategy that blocks off meanders and creates straighter routes to make the river flow faster and reduce the risk of flooding. Also helps with navigation
River Dredging A flood defence strategy that removes the deposited material from the river bed and reduces the risk of flooding and improves water quality.
River Bed The bottom / floor of a river
Glaciated Landscapes Found in upland areas and created by glaciers eroding the landscape to form valleys
Created by: Jennybutton