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Psychology 9

Chapter 9

Developmental psychology The scientific study of biological, cognitive, social, and personality development throughout the life span.
Zygote The fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg.
Germinal stage Formation of zygote and ends after about 2 weeks, when the outer portion of the zygote's developing cluster of cells has attached itself to the uterine wall.
Embryonic stage From 2 weeks to about 2 months, the major structures and organs of the body to begin to develop, and the embryo starts to resemble a human being.
Fetal stage From about 2 months to birth, the developing organism is called a fetus, and through very rapid growth, the body structures and organs complete their growth.
Teratogens Environmental agents, (such as drugs or viruses), diseases, and physical conditions (such as malnutrition) that impair prenatal development and leas to birth defects or even death.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) When the pregnant mother consumes a high amount of alcohol which causes baby to having facial and limb deformities.
Reflex Unlearned response to a specific stimulus--automatic.
Grasping reflex When an infant grasps any object that touches their palms.
Sucking reflex Leads an infant to suck anything that touches their lips.
Rooting reflex Leads an infant to turn its mouth toward anything that touches its cheeks and search for something to suck.
Gross motor skills Large body muscles. (Hopping, kicking, running, walking, jumping, etc.)
Fine motor skills Small body muscles. (Writing, using a fork, puzzles, using scissors, etc.)
Child-directed speech The different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodic pitch than normal speech.
Babbling At about 6 or 7 months, it's the rhythmic repetition of various syllables, including both consonants and vowels.
Holophrases At about 1 year of age, the infant begins to speak a few words, which usually refer to their caregivers and objects in their daily environment. Words that express complete ideas.
Overextension The application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word. (Calling any female person "Mama".)
Underextension The failure to apply the new word more generally to objects that are included within the meaning of the new word. (Not extending the category of " dog" to include dogs that are not the family pet.)
Telegraphic speech The use of 2-word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs. ("Dada eat" for "Dad is having dinner".)
Over regularization happens during the grammar explosion after the age of 3 and is their application of grammar rules for forming plurals and past tenses. ("I broked it" "mouses" "tooths")
Schemas Organized units of knowledge about objects, events, and actions.
Assimilation * The interpretation of new experiences in terms of present schemas.
Accommodations * The modification of present schemas to fit with new experiences.
Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) Children use senses and motor abilities to learn about the world and develop object permanence.
Preoperational (2 to 6 years) Children use symbolic thinking to understand the world but remain egocentric and lack the mental operations that allows logical thinking.
Concrete operational (6 to 12 years) Children gain cognitive operations for logical thinking about concrete events, understand conservation, and perform mathematical operation, but they cannot reason abstractly.
Formal operational Further development of cognitive operations enables adolescents to engage in abstract thinking and hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
Object permanence Knowledge that an object exists independent of perceptual contact.
Symbolic representation Develops during the latter part of the sensorimotor stage. (Use of telegraphic speech.)
Egocentrism The inability to distinguish one's own
Nature-nurture issue The degree to which biology (nature) or the environment (nurture) contributes to one's development.
Down-syndrome A genetic birth disorder resulting from an extra 21st chromosome, characterized by distinct facial features and a greater likelihood of heart defects and intellectual disability.
Sensitive period In prenatal development, a time when genetic and environmental agents are most likely to cause birth defects.
Neonate A newborn during the first 28 days of life.
Cognitive The ability to know, think, or thought.
Symbolic thinking The understanding that an object can be represented with a symbol such as bodily gestures or language.
Centration The act of focusing on only one aspect or feature of an object
Conservation The understanding that an object retains its original properties even though it may look different.
Private speech Vygotsky's term describing the behavior of young children who talk to themselves to guide their own actions.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) According to Vygotsky, the gap between what a child is already able to do and what he/she is not yet capable of doing without help.
Scaffolding A process in which adults initially offer guidance and support in helping a child to reason, solve, and master tasks; adult helps less until the child masters on their own.
Moral reasoning How you decide what is right and what is wrong.
Temperament A person's general pattern of attention, arousal, and mood that is evident at birth.
Attachment The emotional bond between caretaker and infant that is established by 8 or 9 months.
Separation anxiety The distress an infant expresses when faced with unfamiliar people.
Authoritarian parent A parenting style characterized by high levels of control and low levels of affection.
Authorative parent A parenting style characterized by moderate levels of control and affection.
Permissive parent A parenting style characterized by moderate levels f affection but low levels of control.
Puberty The process of sexual maturation.
Menarche A girl's first menstruation.
Menopause The period when a female stops menstruating and is no longer fertile.
Imaginary audience The belief held by adolescents that everyone is watching what they do.
Personal fable The belief held by adolescents that are unique and special.
Dualistic thinking Reasoning that divides situations and issues into right and wrong.
Relativistic thinking The idea that in many situations there is not necessary one right or wrong answer.
Post formal thought The idea that a correct solution (or solutions) may vary, depending on the circumstances.
Fluid intelligence Abilities that rely on info-processing skills such as reaction time, attention, and working memory.
Crystallized intelligence Abilities that relies on knowledge, expertise, and judgment.
Diffusion According to Marcia, an identity status in which the individual has not explored or committed to any personal values.
Moratonium According to Marcia, an identity status in which the individual actively explored personal values.
Foreclosure According to Marcia, an identity status in which the individual prematurely commits to personal values before exploration is complete.
Achievement According to Marcia and Erikson, an identity state in which a commitment to personal values that have been adequately explored or attained.
Emerging adulthood The transitional period between late adolescence and the mid-20s when young people have left adolescence but have not yet assumed adult roles and responsibilities.
Bereavement The experience of losing a loved one.
Grief One's emotional reaction to the death of a loved one.
Created by: cpruett8