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Resistance Ex.

TE ch.6

QuestionAnswer
resistance training type of exercise where contractions are resisted from an outside force static - isometric dynamic (concentric/eccentric)
resistance training benefits improved muscle performance, increased strength, increase bone density, improved performance of ADL, occupational and recreational activities
muscle performance abiltiy of a muscle to work
elements strength, power, endurance
principles overload SAID
strength generate a force and overcome resistance
resistance gravity, weight
power strength and speed/rates of performing work
endurance perform repetitive activites over prolonged period of time
overload muscle must be challenged at a greater level/ progressive loading by manipulating intensity or volume, manipulate intensity
SAID affects of training are specific to the training methods, improvements should be used in fuctional activites
sliding filament theory myosin grabs actin, myosin has fingers pulls slides actin together, shortens myo fybils and muscle fiber shortens equals contraction of muscle
levles of contraction filament, fibrel, muscle firer, muscle
force and velocity concentric-as resistance inreases velocity of movement will decrease/eccentric - a resistance increases, velocity increases/ isometric no velocity of movement
slow twitch/type 1 higher percentage of this type of muscle postural muscles, bright red and slow to fatigue ENDURANCE
fast twitch type 2a hybrid of type one and 2b slow/fast gastrocnemeus
fast twitch type 2b pale in color fast to fatigue POWER higher % of this type of muscle
ratio of fiber types both exist in all muscles, genetically determined
fiber type recruitment slow twitch fire first as more force is needed to over come resistance, fast twitch begin to fire
concentric contraction dynamic, muscle shortens during force period
eccentric contraction dynamic, muscle lengthens during force production
isometric static, muscle exerts force without changing length (muscle setting, stabilization)
muscle setting tighten muscle against little or no resistance
stabilization attempt to hold a body part still (proximal muscles engage
precautions valsalva and cheating (substitute motion), overwork/overtrain (burnout), exercise induced soreness
valsalva happens during high intensity exercises but may happen while using muscle setting/holding the breath dangerous BP goes up when exhale
substitute movement compenstion (cheating), to prevent use appropriate resistance/volume, proper technique, appropriate stabilization
overwork/overtraining burnout- decline in performance due to lack of rest or too quick progression / prevent by resting and changing up, use slow progress
DOMS build up of metabolites, and related to microtrauma of muscle, pain start after 24 hours and peaks at 48 hours lasts 10 14 days
prevent DOMS cool down and warm up, progress graudally
contraindications pain, inflamation (cause irreversable muscle damage, severe acute cardiopulmonary conditions (especially upper body exercises)
elements alignment, stabilization, intensity
alignment determined by pull of muscle, position for muscle to function against gravity and resistance
stablization necessary to avoid substitute movements: internal- performed by pt, external - manual or mechanical divice
intensity amount of resistance sub max - low to moderate intensity (early stages of rehab to increase tolerance), max: high intensity (build power and strength)
repetition maximum greatest amount of wt that can be moved through full rom for specific
volume more volume less intensity, reps -
velocity of exercise slow to medium is recommended, needs to be smooth and coordintated (speed of movement)
exercise sequence large before small, mult joint before single joint
frequency
duration
recovery period depends on intenisty and volume the higher the intensity the longer the rest (1to 3 mins on avg. for elderly)
mode form of exercise, type of contraction, form of resistance, way exercise is carried out
form (open v closed) open distal end moves (non wt pearing positions, resistance applied to distal segement)/ closed distal end is fixed, proximal end moves (wt bearing positions, cause multiple joint movments)
forms of resistance manual, mechanical, accomodating, body wt.
manual resistance PT provides resistance *unable to quantify, useful in early program, limited to therapists strength
mechanical resistance -constant: body wt, free wt, pulley/ variable: machine (nautilus), elastic band *quantifiable
accomodating resistance isokinetic (speed is maipulated)
isometric hold for 6 sec no more than 10 to get as many muscles to fire as possilbe, after 10 muscle fails
muscle setting against little or no resistance, acute stage, slows atrophy
stabalization exercise (setting) develops co contraction
multiple angle exercise resistance at various points within ROM
dynamic concentric (accelerates) eccentric (decelerates) using muscles the way we will use in ADL
neural adaptations strength in first 4 to 8 weeks of program are due to increased efficiency of nervous system, motor leaning, imporved coordination due to increase in motor units firing and rate of synchronizatin of firing
muscular adaptions hpertrophy, hperplasia
hypertrophy increased fiber volume, accounts for strength gains after 4 weeks
hyperplasia hypothesized from fiber splitting
vascular adaptions increased density of capillary bed (more capillaries develop) espeically with endurance training
connective tissue adaptations tendon and ligament strength increases to support improved strength of muscle, occurs most rapidly with eccentric exercise
bone adaptations wt bearing (closed chain) exercises increase bone density ***long period 9 months to one year
factors in Rehab pt precautions, level of pre morbid conditioning, stage of injury, exercise tolerance, most appropriate type of contraction to use, desired outcomes, function
warm up 5 to 10 mins with no load dynamic mvmts
intensity appropriate to appropriate to goals and pts abilities
volume (by of reps)
cooldown 5 to 10 mins after wkout
PRE progressive resistance exercise load is incrementaly increased
repetition maximum RM max amount of resistance a muscle can overcome for the desired number of reps
variable resistance varies resistance throughtout rom
variable resistance advantages tension adjusted to mm cpability, provides external stabalization
variable resistance disadvantages single plane movement, expense, space to accomodate
elastic resistance varaible resistance relative to color and length
elastic resistance advantages portable, versatile, safe at fast speeds, inexpensive
elastic resistance disadvantages not quantifiable, no stabilization
medical history remember medical history of pt. precautions, pain or neuromuscular limits may prohibit rapid progress
stage of therapy will dictate type of activity
balance between too much and too little activity with consideration of any precautions and attention to functional goals
Created by: llacorte